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NWSA English II

Ms. Strahan's English II Class

Month

May 2014

English II EOC Part 13

Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass was born into slavery on a plantation in Maryland. At age 8, he was sent to work for a while as a house servant for a family in Baltimore. Years later he escaped to the North where he became a successful orator and abolitionist, and eventually purchased his freedom.
Excerpt from the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas
by Frederick Douglass
I lived in Master Hugh’s family about seven years. During this time, I succeeded in learning to read and write. In accomplishing this, I was compelled to resort to various stratagems. I had no regular teacher. My mistress, who had kindly commenced to instruct me, had, in compliance with the advice and direction of her husband, not only ceased to instruct, but had set her face against my being instructed by any one else. It is due, however, to my mistress to say of her, that she did not adopt this course of treatment immediately. She at first lacked the depravity1 indispensable to shutting me up in mental darkness. It was at least necessary for her to have some training in the exercise of irresponsible power, to make her equal to the task of treating me as though I were a brute.
My mistress was, as I have said, a kind and tenderhearted woman; and in the simplicity of her soul she commenced, when I first went to live with her, to treat me as she supposed one human being ought to treat another. In entering upon the duties of a slaveholder, she did not seem to perceive that I sustained to her the relation of a mere chattel2, and that for her to treat me as a human being was not only wrong, but dangerously so. Slavery proved as injurious to her as it did to me. When I went there, she was a pious, warm, and tenderhearted woman. There was no sorrow or suffering for which she had not a tear. She had bread for the hungry, clothes for the naked, and comfort for every mourner that came within her reach. Slavery soon proved its ability to divest her of these heavenly qualities. Under its influence, the tender heart became stone, and the lamblike disposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness. The first step in her downward course was in her ceasing to instruct me. She now commenced to practice her husband’s precepts. She finally became even more violent in her opposition than her husband himself. She was not satisfied with simply doing as well as he had commanded; she seemed anxious to do better. Nothing seemed to make her angrier than to see me with a newspaper. She seemed to think that here lay the danger. I have had her rush at me with a face made all up of fury, and snatch from me a newspaper, in a manner that fully revealed her apprehension. She was an apt woman; and a little experience soon demonstrated, to her satisfaction, that education and slavery were incompatible with each other.
From this time I was most narrowly watched. If I was in a separate room any considerable length of time, I was sure to be suspected of having a book, and was at once called to give an account of myself. All this, however, was too late. The first step had been taken. Mistress, in teaching me the alphabet, had given me the inch, and no precaution could prevent me from taking the ell.3
The plan which I adopted, and the one by which I was most successful, was that of making friends of all the little white boys whom I met in the street. As many of these as I could, I converted into teachers. With their kindly aid, obtained at different times and in different places, I finally succeeded in learning to read. When I was sent of errands, I always took my book with me, and by going one part of my errand quickly, I found time to get a lesson before my return. I used also to carry bread with me, enough of which was always in the house, and to which I was always welcome; for I was much better off in this regard than many of the poor white children in our neighborhood. This bread I used to bestow upon the hungry little urchins, who, in return, would give me that more valuable bread of knowledge.

1depravity: moral corruption
2mere chattel: only a servant
3taking the ell: the expression “Give him an inch, and he’ll take the ell” means “Give him an inch, and he will take four.”

Project Gutenberg, 2006. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23/23-h/23-h.htm (02/22/2013).

35. Based on paragraph 2, what can the reader infer?

A. Slavery is an evil that can only be cured by education.

B. Slavery is an evil that is passed down through generations.

C. Slavery has the power to turn good people into cruel ones.

D. Slavery has the power to inspire slaves to earn an education.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
New VOA IPhone App Empowers Citizen Journalists

New VOA IPhone App Empowers Citizen Journalists
Voice of America’s Russian Service has rolled out a new iPhone app that does more than just deliver the latest news and information—it lets citizen journalists use their mobile devices to upload and share short reports, photos or video about key events in their target region.
The app1, which is available for free in the iTunes store, is a true multimedia tool, providing access to VOA Russian service text, video, and audio content, including podcasts2 and the popular Russian blog3. The app also lets users bookmark VOA articles or create video and audio playlists, as well as connections to Twitter and Facebook for easy content sharing across social media sites.
Russian Service Managing Editor Irina Van Dusen says “the feature on the new app we are most excited about is called ‘You—the Reporter,’ which allows members of our audience to become citizen journalists who can share with our audience what they have witnessed or observed.”
With the new app, iPhone users can type a short report and attach photos or videos, then send that user-generated content directly to the VOA Russian Service, where journalists will evaluate the material for possible use on the website.
For other smartphone users, VOA Russian provides a state-of-the-art mobile website that adjusts to the specific features of the user’s phone.
VOA’s Russian Service Golos Ameriki employs an all-digital strategy to deliver news and information to Russia and other former Soviet Republics. With reporters in the United States and in the region, the service provides interactive and timely text, audio and video, and offers insights into U.S. policy and American life.
In the past year the service has experienced significant audience growth, with nearly 4 million visits to the site since January 1. Earlier this month, the service teamed up with award-winning investigative journalist Fatima Tlisova, on a multi-media project aimed at telling the difficult stories that reporters are often punished for pursuing. More than a blog, the Russian language project, titled Journalism in the Crosshairs (Pressa pod Pressom), provides a digital media platform for reporters from the former Soviet Union and Central Asia, who are often beaten or killed as a result of their work.

1app: a program from the internet that can be accessed by cell phones
2podcasts: programs of music or talk
3blog: an internet website containing a writer’s personal thoughts and comments
Broadcasting Board of Governors, VOA Press Release. (06/27/2011)

36. What can the reader infer from the statement “which allows members of our audience to become citizen journalists” in paragraph 3?

A. The reader can infer that there is a need for ordinary people to verify official news stories.

B. The reader can infer that the app will make it easier for VOA to send information to the users.

C. The reader can infer that writers and reporters will find the app useful when contributing their stories.

D. The reader can infer that VOA wants to hire reporters who can investigate and share stories with their audience.

37. What can the reader infer from the last paragraph?

A. The reader can infer that VOA recruits people to investigate dangerous news stories.

B. The reader can infer that some governments try to control the publication of news stories.

C. The reader can infer that many people are unwilling to investigate news stories that may be perilous.

D. The reader can infer that difficult news stories are often not worth the punishment reporters receive for pursuing them.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
What a History!

What a History!
The ancestors of the French are the Gauls, who established themselves in the 6th century B.C. After the defeat of their leader, Vercingetorix, they were conquered by the Romans, who came from the Italian peninsula, and were later invaded by different peoples from the east of the continent until the 6th century A.D.
After the reign of the Franks, who gave their name to France, and the Emperor Charlemagne (742–814), a large part of the country was governed by hereditary royal families who handed down power among themselves after the 10th century. The monarchy reached its highest point with Louis XIV (1643–1715). Although he was called the Sun King and built the Château de Versailles, the country suffered from war and poverty during his reign.
On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, an old fort and royal prison, and rose in rebellion. The French Revolution ended the monarchy and set up the Republic. In 1791, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed the principles of liberty and equality for all.
But the French Republic had to fight wars against European monarchies. The victorious French general, Bonaparte, set up an imperial government and became emperor, taking the name Napoleon I (1804–1815). He erected the Arc de Triomphe in tribute to the French armies. Before he was defeated, he reorganized the administration, the justice system, and finances, and created a centralized state, which was to turn France into a modern country.

Embassy of France in the United States. http://www.info-france-usa.org/kids/histgeo/base.asp?history (11/20/2006).

38. Which sentence shows a fundamental shift in France’s history?

A. “The monarchy reached its highest point with Louis XIV (1643–1715).”

B. “Although he was called the Sun King and built the Château de Versailles, the country suffered from war and poverty during his reign.”

C. “On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, an old fort and royal prison, and rose in rebellion.”

D. “But the French Republic had to fight wars against European monarchies.”

39. Which sentence from the selection represents what the author considers the best period of France’s history?

A. “After the reign of the Franks, who gave their name to France, and the Emperor Charlemagne (742–814), a large part of the country was governed by hereditary royal families who handed down power among themselves after the 10th century.”

B. “The monarchy reached its highest point with Louis XIV (1643–1715).”

C. “On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, an old fort and royal prison, and rose in rebellion.”

D. “Before he was defeated, he reorganized the administration, the justice system, and finances and created a centralized state, which was to turn France into a modern country.”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from Personal Recollections of a Cavalryman with Custers Michigan Cavalry Brigade in the Ci

Excerpt from Personal Recollections of a Cavalryman with Custer’s Michigan Cavalry Brigade in the Civil War
by J.H. Kidd
1. It is true that in the first stages of the war the fighting qualities of American soldiers did not appear in altogether a favorable light. But at that time the fact is that the volunteer armies on both sides were not much better than mere armed mobs, and without discipline or cohesion. But those conditions didn’t last long,—and there was never but one Bull Run.
2. Enoch Wallace was home on recruiting service some weeks in the fall of 1862, and when he rejoined the regiment he told me something my father said in a conversation that occurred between the two. They were talking about the war, battles, and topics of that sort, and in the course of their talk Enoch told me that my father said that while he hoped his boy would come through the war all right, yet he would rather “Leander should be killed dead, while standing up and fighting like a man, than that he should run, and disgrace the family.” I have no thought from the nature of the conversation as told to me by Enoch that my father made this remark with any intention of its being repeated to me. It was sudden and spontaneous, and just the way the old backwoodsman felt. But I never forgot it, and it helped me several times. For, to be perfectly frank about it, and tell the plain truth, I will set it down here that, so far as I was concerned, away down in the bottom of my heart I just secretly dreaded a battle. But we were soldiers, and it was our business to fight when the time came, so the only thing to then do was to summon up our pride and resolution, and face the ordeal with all the fortitude we could command. And while I admit the existence of this feeling of dread before the fight, yet it is also true that when it was on, and one was in the thick of it, with the smell of gun-powder permeating his whole system, then a signal change comes over a man. He is seized with a furious desire to kill. There are his foes, right in plain view, give it to ’em—and for the time being he becomes almost oblivious to the sense of danger.
3. And while it was only human nature to dread a battle,—and I think it would be mere affectation to deny it, yet I also know that we common soldiers strongly felt that when fighting did break loose close at hand, or within the general scope of our operations, then we ought to be in it, with the others, and doing our part. That was what we were there for, and somehow a soldier didn’t feel just right for fighting to be going on all round him, or in his vicinity, and he doing nothing but lying back somewhere, eating government rations.
4. But, all things considered, the best definition of true courage I have ever read is that given by Gen. Sherman in his Memoirs, as follows:
5. “I would define true courage,” (he says,) “to be a perfect sensibility of the measure of danger, and a mental willingness to endure it.” But, I will further say, in this connection, that, in my opinion, much depends, sometimes, especially at a critical moment, on the commander of the men who is right on the ground, or close at hand. This is shown by the result attained by Gen. Milroy in the incident I have previously mentioned. And, on a larger scale, the inspiring conduct of Gen. Sheridan at the battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia, is probably the most striking example in modern history of what a brave and resolute leader of men can accomplish under circumstances when apparently all is lost. And, on the other hand, I think there is no doubt that the battle of Wilson’s Creek, Missouri, on August 10, 1861, was a Union victory up to the time of the death of Gen. Lyon, and would have remained such if the officer who succeeded Lyon had possessed the nerve of his fallen chief. But he didn’t, and so he marched our troops off the field, retreated from a beaten enemy, and hence Wilson’s Creek figures in history as a Confederate victory. I have read somewhere this saying of Bonaparte’s: “An army of deer commanded by a lion is better than an army of lions commanded by a deer.” While that statement is only figurative in its nature, it is, however, a strong epigrammatic expression of the fact that the commander of soldiers in battle should be, above all other things, a forcible, determined, and brave man.

40. How does the cavalryman introduce himself to the audience?

A. through a story about his father

B. by explaining his role in the army

C. through a description of his first battle

D. by demonstrating his knowledge of historical battles

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Grove Park Inn

The Grove Park Inn
The Grove Park Inn, built by Edwin Wiley Grove, is an earnest attempt to erect an honest building with no substitution of contemporary popular design for classic construction forms, all the more remarkable because an amateur architect designed it during an era of architectural pretension.1 Grove, owner of a pharmaceutical company manufacturing Bromo-Quinine,2 arrived in Asheville in 1900 and found the mild climate so much to his liking that he purchased a large tract of land on Sunset Mountain. Grove had the idea for a magnificent lodge, grand enough to mirror the majesty of the mountains that would provide its foundation. Grove’s concept called for a building with the natural rough stone of the mountains surrounding the lodge. After finding that no local architects could grasp his concept, Grove entrusted his son-in-law, Fred L. Seely, to design the building. Seely had no formal training in architecture but undertook the project as both designer and contractor. The Grove Park Inn was completed in 11 months and 27 days and opened on July 1, 1913. The unusual and striking intimacy between the building and its natural environment is one of the factors of the continued success of the Grove Park Inn and perhaps the chief factor in its architectural significance.
The Inn was built in five sections that join end-to-end and step terrace-like along the mountain ridge. Native uncut granite boulders quarried from Sunset Mountain form the wall surfaces and chimneys of the Inn. Grove himself ordered that “not a piece of stone was to be visible to the eye except it show the time-etched face given it by thousands of years of sun and rain that had beaten on it.” The Grove Park Inn has enjoyed a long and colorful history with many distinguished guests, including Eleanor Roosevelt, Henry Ford, John D. Rockefeller, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and President Woodrow Wilson.
Federal agencies controlled the property from 1942 to 1946, during which time the State Department used the Inn as an internment center for Axis diplomats. Philippine government officials were in exile at this time and were also located in one of the guest cottages. The United States Navy has also used the Inn as a rest and rehabilitation center. Substantial renovations occurred in 1955, and additional wings were added to the Inn in 1958 and 1963. A major expansion, completed in February of 2001, added a spa to the grounds.
1pretention: artificiality; snobbishness
2Bromo-Quinine: a cold medicine

National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/asheville/gro.htm (03/27/2013).

41. Which detail shows how the Grove Park Inn’s design would “mirror the majesty of the mountains”?

A. “The Grove Park Inn . . . is an earnest attempt to erect an honest building with no substitution of contemporary popular design for classic construction forms.”

B. “Grove’s concept called for a building with the natural rough stone of the mountains surrounding the lodge.”

C. “The Inn was built in five sections that join end-to-end and step terrace-like along the mountain ridge.”

D. “Grove . . . ordered that ‘not a piece of stone was to be visible to the eye except it show the time-etched face given it by thousands of years of sun and rain that had beaten on it.’ ”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Edgar Allan Poe – A Mystery

Edgar Allan Poe—A Mystery
by William H. Elson and Christine Keck
So irregular was the life of Edgar Allan Poe, and so strong were the prejudices of his critics that not only his character and habits of life, but even the simplest facts of his biography, are surrounded with mystery and are subjects of doubt and dispute.
By everything, but the accident of birth, Poe belongs to the South. His father was from Baltimore, and his mother was of English birth. They were both members of a theatrical company playing in Boston at the time of Poe’s birth, January 19, 1809. At the age of three, he was left an orphan by the death of his mother. A wealthy Scotchman of Virginia, Mr. John Allan, adopted him and brought him up in luxury—a much spoiled child, everywhere adored for his beauty and precocity1.
He was sent to school in a suburb of London and upon his return to America entered the University of Virginia, a proud, reserved, and self-willed youth. Here he led an irregular life, so that Mr. Allan was forced to withdraw him from school and gave him work in his office. The routine of office work was very distasteful to Poe, and he ran away to Boston, where he published his first volume of poems. Here he enlisted in the army, but when Mr. Allan heard of his whereabouts, he secured his discharge and obtained an appointment for him, as a cadet, at West Point. The severe discipline of that school proved irksome to his restless nature, and after a few months, he brought upon himself his dismissal. At the age of twenty-two, he found himself adrift with nothing further to expect from Mr. Allan.
Literature presented itself as his most natural vocation. He had written poetry from the pure love of it, but now actual poverty drove him to the more remunerative2 prose writing. He engaged in journalistic work in Baltimore, living with his aunt, Mrs. Clemm, and her daughter, Virginia. Two years later, he married Virginia Clemm, a mere child; but Poe, whose reverence for women was his noblest trait, loved her and cared for her through poverty and ill-health, until her death eleven years later, a short time before his own. His life was a melancholy one, a fierce struggle and final defeat. In 1849, on his way to New York from Richmond, chance brought him and election day together in the city of Baltimore. He was found in an election booth, delirious, and died a few days later.
Poe was a keen critic of the literary men of his day, but he applied the same standards to himself. He was constantly rewriting and polishing what he had written. Poe’s greatness lay in his imaginative work—his tales and his poems. The tales may be said to constitute a distinct addition to the world’s literature. From times past, there have been tales in prose and in verse, tales legendary, romantic, and humorous, but never any quite like Poe’s.
The appeal of his poetry is to the sentiment of beauty—the one appeal, which according to his theory is the final justification of any poem. Language is made to yield its utmost of melody. “The Raven” was first published in January, 1845, and immediately became and remains one of the most widely known of English poems. It can be mentioned anywhere, without apology or explanation, and there is scarcely a lover of melodious verse who cannot repeat many of its lines and stanzas.
Every reader of Poe’s prose will be impressed with the charm of the language itself, the fascination of the vivid scenes and the magic touch like the Necromancer’s2 wand, which removes these scenes into the uncharted realm of the supernatural and invests them with a kind of sacred awe.

1precocity: intelligence achieved far ahead of normal developmental schedules
2remunerative: money-making
3Necromancer: one who practices magic or sorcery

From Project Gutenberg at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/ (8/7/2012).

42. How do the authors organize the ideas and events in the selection?

A. using chronological sequencing

B. using cause and effect strategies

C. using order of importance sequencing

D. using comparison and contrast strategies

43. How does the author develop the idea that Poe led an “irregular” life?

A. by describing his diverse readers

B. by relating his earliest attempts at writing

C. by highlighting the wide variety of his writing

D. by detailing his defiance to Mr. Allan’s plans

44. Which connection do the authors make between Poe’s criticisms of the work of others and his own writing?

A. Poe applied the same standards to others as he did to his own writing.

B. Poe’s investigations of other literary works inspired his own writing.

C. Poe’s research encouraged him to create his own genre of writing.

D. Poe’s study of others led him to change his own style of writing.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
India Releases Tiger Numbers as Experts Convene

India Releases Tiger Numbers as Experts Convene
The Indian Government today released new tiger population numbers for the first time since 2007, indicating that numbers have increased in the country that has half of the world’s remaining wild tigers. The government estimated current tiger numbers in India at 1,706, up from 1,411 during the last count in 2007. However, the 1,706 figure includes an additional tiger reserve in the count, the Sundarbans, that contained 70 tigers. This area was not counted in 2007. Therefore, when comparing the previous survey with the current one, the official estimate stands at 1,636 when leaving out the Sundarbans, or an increase of 225.
Figures were broken down by site with some populations showing increases, and others falling. “As seen from the results, recovery requires strong protection of core tiger areas and areas that link them, as well as effective management in the surrounding areas,” said Mike Baltzer, Head of WWF’s Tigers Alive Initiative. “With these two vital conservation ingredients, we can not only halt their decline, but ensure tigers make a strong and lasting comeback.”
The figures marked the opening of the International Tiger Conservation Conference, a three day meeting following on the heels of the groundbreaking Global Tiger Recovery Program (GTRP), a worldwide plan to bring the species back from the brink of extinction which was forged in November 2010 at an international tiger conservation meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia organized by Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
The count was conducted by India’s National Tiger Conservation Authority with key partners, including WWF, in the largest tiger population survey ever undertaken.
“These numbers give us hope for the future of tigers in the wild, and that India continues to play an integral role in the tiger’s recovery,” said WWF International Director General Jim Leape, who is chairing a conference session on the role of international and national partners in the GTRP’s implementation.
In its detail, this tiger estimation exercise shows the importance India attaches to this prime conservation issue,” said WWF India CEO Ravi Singh. “The results indicate the need to intensify field based management and intervention to go beyond the present benchmark, bringing more people and partners into the process.”
Several areas in India, including those that are not Tiger Reserves and outside national parks, were intensively surveyed for the first time. The Moyar Valley and Sigur Plateau in Southwest India’s Western Ghats Complex, that has been a focus of recent WWF conservation efforts, was found to contain more than 50 tigers. Similarly, the Ramnagar Forest Reserve outside Corbett National Park showed a good number of tigers.
In addition to high-level officials from the 13 countries that still have tigers, the conference is expected to hear from key NGOs and global partners in the GTRP, including the World Bank’s Global Tiger Initiative, the Global Tiger Forum, WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), the Smithsonian Institute, the wildlife trade network TRAFFIC, CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) and the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW).
Numbering more than 100,000 at the turn of the last century, tigers have lost more than 97 percent of their population and 94 percent of their home range in just 100 years. They live in increasingly isolated pockets of land in Asia and the Russian Far East in Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, China and Russia. The Global Tiger Recovery Programme marks the first formalized international initiative to save the species from extinction.

WWF International. http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?199803/India-releases-tiger-numbers-as-experts-convene (03/27/2013).

45. How does the information in the final paragraph support the rest of the selection?

A. It shows how tiger populations have increased.

B. It explains the conservation strategy of the GTRP.

C. It describes the range of habitats in which tigers live.

D. It demonstrates the need for tiger conservation efforts.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Joshua Abraham Norton

1. On September 17, 1859, Joshua Abraham Norton declared himself the emperor of the United States. Now everyone knows that the United States has always been a democracy, but this didn’t keep Norton from his self-proclaimed status of emperor. Was Norton crazy? Probably. But his insanity didn’t keep him from making a profound mark on U.S. history.
2. Joshua Norton was once an incredibly prosperous man. He owned his own company, several buildings which he rented out, and was a successful trader in San Francisco, California. However, after making a terrible investment in the rice trade, he lost thousands of dollars. At the same time, the gold rush in California was quickly coming to an end, and the real estate market collapsed, leaving Norton with worthless property and little cash. By 1858, Norton had lost everything. This appears to have been his breaking point, causing the once-successful businessman to lose grip with reality.
3. Norton spoke out against America’s government, believing it to be inefficient and corrupt, and in 1859 declared himself emperor. He began wearing a blue military uniform that he adorned with gold buttons and cloth that a soldier gave to him. Shortly after, he began making proclamations that were published in the San Francisco Bulletin.
4. Although clearly insane to those around him, people were somehow drawn to him. He was shown great respect by San Francisco shop and restaurant owners who gave him merchandise and food for free. Norton didn’t just dress like an emperor, he carried himself like an emperor, and in his many speeches and proclamations printed in the Bulletin, he spoke out against slavery and called for the abolishment of Congress.
5. Like many madmen, Norton also showed signs of genius. In 1872, he issued a proclamation ordering that a suspension bridge be built between Oakland and San Francisco, allowing travel and commerce between the two without having to cross the Bay of San Francisco by boat. At the time, his idea was ignored, but sixty-four years later, the Bay Bridge was built in almost the exact location that Norton had specified.
6. On January 8, 1880, Joshua Norton, Emperor of the United States, was walking to a regularly scheduled debate at the Academy of Natural Sciences, when he simply slumped over and died. He was the first and last of the emperors in this nation.

46. How does the author mostly organize the passage?

A. through cause and effect

B. through chronological order

C. by explaining a problem and providing a solution

D. by stating a fact and providing supporting details

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from The Story of an African Farm: “Times and Seasons”

Excerpt from The Story of an African Farm: “Times and Seasons”
by Olive Schreiner
The year of infancy, where from the shadowy background of forgetfulness start out pictures of startling clearness, disconnected, but brightly colored, and indelibly1 printed in the mind. Much that follows fades, but the colors of those baby-pictures are permanent.
There rises, perhaps, a warm summer’s evening; we are seated on the doorstep; we have yet the taste of the bread and milk in our mouth, and the red sunset is reflected in our basin.
Then there is a dark night, where, waking with a fear that there is some great being in the room, we run from our own bed to another, creep close to some large figure, and are comforted.
Then there is remembrance of the pride when, on someone’s shoulder, with our arms around their head, we ride to see the little pigs, the new little pigs with their curled tails and tiny snouts—where do they come from?
Remembrance of delight in the feel and smell of the first orange we ever see; of sorrow which makes us put up our lip, and cry hard, when one morning we run out to try and catch the dewdrops, and they melt and wet our little fingers; of almighty and despairing sorrow when we are lost behind the kraals2, and cannot see the house anywhere.
And then one picture starts out more vividly than any.
There has been a thunderstorm; the ground, as far as the eye can reach, is covered with white hail; the clouds are gone, and overhead a deep blue sky is showing; far off a great rainbow rests on the white earth. We, standing in a window to look, feel the cool, unspeakably sweet wind blowing in on us, and a feeling of longing comes over us—unutterable3 longing, we cannot tell for what. We are so small, our head only reaches as high as the first three panes. We look at the white earth, and the rainbow, and the blue sky; and oh, we want it, we want—we do not know what. We cry as though our heart was broken. When one lifts our little body from the window we cannot tell what ails us. We run away to play.
So looks the first year.

1indelibly: in a manner that is impossible to remove
2kraals: an enclosure for cattle and other animals in southern Africa
3unutterable: cannot be spoken

From Project Gutenberg, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/338/ (6/25/12).

47. How does the author’s use of words such as indelibly and permanent affect the reader’s understanding of the selection?

A. It makes these memories seem unimportant.

B. It conveys the idea that memories fade over time.

C. It emphasizes the significance of these memories.

D. It causes doubt about the sincerity of the speaker’s memories.

48. How does the language of the last paragraph affect the tone?

A. by creating a feeling of loss

B. by conveying a sense of peace

C. by conveying a sense of curiosity

D. by creating a feeling of inspiration

49. What is the connotation of the word great in paragraph 3?

A. wonderful and exciting

B. familiar and comforting

C. enormous and beautiful

D. powerful and intimidating

50. How does the author’s use of colors help to develop the theme?

A. by using colors that are associated with specific feeling

B. by showing that colors in nature impact memories

C. by showing that colors in nature often contrast

D. by using colors to describe negative memories

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
With My Fancy I Grasped

From Russia
With My Fancy I Grasped
by Konstantin Balmont
With my fancy I grasped at the vague shadows straying,
At the vague shadows straying where the daylight had fled;
I ascended a tower, and the stairway was swaying,
And the stairway was swaying underneath my light tread.
5
And the higher I climbed, ever clearer were rounded,
Ever clearer were rounded dreaming hilltops aglow;
And from Heaven to Earth twilight voices resounded,
Twilight voices resounded from above and below.
And the higher I rose, strange horizons defining,
10
Strange horizons defining, did the summits appear;
And my eyes as I looked were caressed1 by their shining,
Were caressed by their shining, their farewell, sad and clear.
Now the night had appeared; Earth in darkness lay dreaming,
Earth in darkness lay dreaming, like a slumbering star,
15
While the smoldering2 sun, his dim embers still gleaming,
His dim embers still gleaming, shone for me from afar.
I had learned to ensnare the vague shadows far straying,
The vague shadows far straying, where the daylight had fled;
Ever higher I rose, and the stairway was swaying,
20
And the stairway was swaying underneath my light tread.

1caressed: touched; stroked
2smoldering: burning without flames

Internet Archive, 2007. http://www.archive.org/stream/modernrussianpoe00deutuoft/modernrussianpoe00deutuoft_djvu.txt (02/25/2013).

51. What is ironic about the speaker’s reference to the sun shining in lines 15–16?

A. He is supposed to be asleep.

B. The poem is filled with imagery of night.

C. He is too far away to be able to see the sun.

D. He has broken his pattern of talking about the staircase.

52. What effect does the poet achieve by sharing phrases in the first and last stanzas?

A. a change in the poet’s perspective on how to reach his goal

B. a movement from the start of a climb to its near completion

C. a reversal of the poem’s rhythm and word patterns

D. a reinforcement of the poem’s hopeful tone

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Song at the Beginning

From Mexico
Song at the Beginning
Translated by Daniel G. Brinton
I am wondering where I may gather some pretty, sweet flowers. Whom
shall I ask? Suppose that I ask the brilliant humming-bird, the
emerald trembler; suppose that I ask the yellow butterfly; they will
tell me, they know, where bloom the pretty, sweet flowers, whether I
5
may gather them here in the laurel woods where dwell the tzinitzcan
birds, or whether I may gather them in the flowery forests where the
tlauquechol lives. There they may be plucked sparkling with dew,
there they come forth in perfection. Perhaps there I shall see them
if they have appeared; I shall place them in the folds of my garment,
10
and with them I shall greet the children, I shall make glad the
nobles.
Truly as I walk along I hear the rocks as it were replying to the
sweet songs of the flowers; truly the glittering, chattering water
answers, the bird-green fountain, there it sings, it dashes forth, it
15
sings again; the mockingbird answers; perhaps the coyol bird answers,
and many sweet singing birds scatter their songs around like music.
They bless the earth pouring out their sweet voices.
* * *
They led me within a valley to a fertile spot, a flowery spot,
where the dew spread out in glittering splendor, where I saw various
20
lovely fragrant flowers, lovely odorous flowers, clothed with the
dew, scattered around in rainbow glory, there they said to me, “Pluck
the flowers, whichever thou wishest, mayest thou the singer be glad,
and give them to thy friends, to the nobles, that they may rejoice on
the earth.”
25
So I gathered in the folds of my garment the various fragrant
flowers, delicate scented, delicious, and I said, may some of our
people enter here, may very many of us be here; and I thought I
should go forth to announce to our friends that here all of us should
rejoice in the different lovely, odorous flowers, and that we should
30
cull the various sweet songs with which we might rejoice our friends
here on earth, and the nobles in their grandeur and dignity.

Project Gutenberg, 2004. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12219/12219-h/12219-h.htm#I (03/27/2013).

53. Which reason best explains the effect of using wishest, mayest, thou, and thy in the third stanza?

A. The formal words make the reader imagine a different historical era.

B. The dialect makes the reader focus on what the flowers consider important.

C. The language shows the reader that people and flowers use different languages.

D. The distinct words show the reader how inanimate objects such as flowers might communicate.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Peach-Blossom Fountain

The Peach-Blossom Fountain
By T’ao Yuan-Ming
Towards the close of the fourth century A.D., a certain fisherman of Wu-ling, who had followed up one of the river branches without taking note whither he was going, came suddenly upon a grove of peach trees in full bloom, extending some distance on each bank, with not a tree of any other kind in sight. The beauty of the scene and the exquisite perfume of the flowers filled the heart of the fisherman with surprise, as he proceeded onwards, anxious to reach the limit of this lovely grove. He found that the peach trees ended where the water began, at the foot of a hill; and there he espied what seemed to be a cave with light issuing from it. So he made fast his boat, and crept in through a narrow entrance, which shortly ushered him into a new world of level country, of fine houses, of rich fields, of fine pools, and of luxuriance of mulberry and bamboo. Highways of traffic ran north and south; sounds of crowing cocks and barking dogs were heard around; the dress of the people who passed along or were at work in the fields was of a strange cut; while young and old alike appeared to be contented and happy.
One of the inhabitants, catching sight of the fisherman, was greatly astonished; but, after learning whence he came, insisted on carrying him home, and killed a chicken and placed some wine before him. Before long, all the people of the place had turned out to see the visitor, and they informed him that their ancestors had sought refuge here, with their wives and families, from the troubled times of the House of Ch’in, adding that they had thus become finally cut off from the rest of the human race. They then inquired about the politics of the day, ignorant of the establishment of the Han dynasty,1 and of course of the later dynasties which had succeeded it. And when the fisherman told them the story, they grieved over the vicissitudes2 of human affairs.
Each in turn invited the fisherman to his home and entertained him hospitably, until at length the latter prepared to take his leave. “It will not be worthwhile to talk about what you have seen to the outside world,” said the people of the place to the fisherman, as he bade them farewell and returned to his boat, making mental notes of his route as he proceeded on his homeward voyage.
When he reached home, he at once went and reported what he had seen to the Governor of the district, and the Governor sent off men with him to seek, by the aid of the fisherman’s notes, to discover this unknown region. But he was never able to find it again. Subsequently, another desperate attempt was made by a famous adventurer to pierce the mystery; but he also failed, and died soon afterwards of chagrin,3 from which time forth no further attempts were made.
1Han dynasty: period of Chinese history from 206 BC-220 BC
2vicissitudes: changes; fluctuations
3chagrin: frustration; embarrassment

54. What is the effect of the word chagrin as it is used in the final paragraph?

A. It leads the reader to believe many more adventurers will look for the mysterious place.

B. It increases the seriousness of the tone due to the negative attitude of the adventurer.

C. It adds humor because of the inability of anyone to find the location.

D. It causes the reader to doubt the truth of the fisherman’s story.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from Chapter I, Anne of Avonlea: An Irate Neighbor

Excerpt from Anne of Avonlea: “An Irate Neighbor”
by Lucy Maud Montgomery
A tall, slim girl, “half-past sixteen,” with serious gray eyes and hair which her friends called auburn, had sat down on the broad red sandstone doorstep of a Prince Edward Island farmhouse one ripe afternoon in August, firmly resolved to construe so many lines of Virgil1.
But an August afternoon, with blue hazes scarfing the harvest slopes, little winds whispering elfishly in the poplars, and a dancing splendor of red poppies outflaming against the dark coppice2 of young firs in a corner of the cherry orchard, was fitter for dreams than dead languages. The Virgil soon slipped unheeded to the ground, and Anne, her chin propped on her clasped hands, and her eyes on the splendid mass of fluffy clouds that were heaping up just over Mr. J. A. Harrison’s house like a great white mountain, was far away in a delicious world where a certain schoolteacher was doing wonderful work, shaping the destinies of future statesmen, and inspiring youthful minds and hearts with high and lofty ambitions.
To be sure, if you came down to harsh facts which, it must be confessed, Anne seldom did until she had to, it did not seem likely that there was much promising material for celebrities in Avonlea school; but you could never tell what might happen if a teacher used her influence for good. Anne had certain rose-tinted ideals of what a teacher might accomplish if she only went the right way about it; and she was in the midst of a delightful scene, forty years hence, with a famous personage—just exactly what he was to be famous for was left in convenient haziness, but Anne thought it would be rather nice to have him a college president or a Canadian premier, bowing low over her wrinkled hand and assuring her that it was she who had first kindled his ambition, and that all his success in life was due to the lessons she had instilled so long ago in Avonlea school. This pleasant vision was shattered by a most unpleasant interruption.
A demure little Jersey cow came scuttling down the lane and five seconds later Mr. Harrison arrived—if “arrived” be not too mild a term to describe the manner of his irruption3 into the yard.
He bounced over the fence without waiting to open the gate, and angrily confronted astonished Anne, who had risen to her feet and stood looking at him in some bewilderment. Mr. Harrison was their new righthand neighbor and she had never met him before, although she had seen him once or twice.
In early April, before Anne had come home from Queen’s, Mr. Robert Bell, whose farm adjoined the Cuthbert place on the west, had sold out and moved to Charlottetown. His farm had been bought by a certain Mr. J. A. Harrison, whose name, and the fact that he was a New Brunswick man, were all that was known about him. But before he had been a month in Avonlea he had won the reputation of being an odd person—“a crank,” Mrs. Rachel Lynde said. Mrs. Rachel was an outspoken lady, as those of you who may have already made her acquaintance will remember. Mr. Harrison was certainly different from other people, and that is the essential characteristic of a crank, as everybody knows.

1Virgil: Roman poet who lived in the first century BCE
2coppice: trees that have been cut very short
3irruption: bursting in; a violent invasion

Project Gutenberg, 2006. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/47/47-h/47-h.htm (02/25/2013).

55. What is meant by “rose-tinted ideals” in paragraph 3?

A. Anne’s unrealistic expectations

B. Harrison’s emotional display of anger

C. the lack of promising talent in Avonlea school

D. the magnificent landscape of Prince Edward Island

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Soldier of Liberty

The Soldier of Liberty
Excerpt from “The Soldier of Liberty”
by Fernando Calderon
On a spirited steed
A young warrior rides,
Covered with solid steel
And filled with bellicose ardor.1
5
He carries his sword in the belt,
And at his side the spear:
On his face shines the light of hope
And in his eyes the flash of valor.
From his right hand he draws the glove
10
And caresses the stout neck,
And the mane that waves in the wind,
Of his faithful companion.
The noble charger proudly lifts
His head with a neigh
15
On feeling the caressing hand
Of the fearless rider.
His black breast and limbs
With white foam are covered;
His hoofs clatter
20
Upon the hard flint;
And at the measure of his steps
And the sharp sound of the steel,
The warrior raises his voice
With these immortal words:
25
“Fly, fly, my intrepid2
Charger;
The hostile squadrons will
Not beat thy noble spirit
That has always proudly despised
30
The cannon’s blast,
And a thousand times
Thou hast heard
Its terrifying
Report,
35
Like a song
Of victory;
A precursor
Of thy glory.
In irons, with opprobrium,3
40
Others enjoy peace;
Not I who seek in war
Liberty or death.
“I left my delightful
Paternal abode;
45
I left my tranquil existence
To gird on the sword,
And with courage tore myself
From the bosom of my beloved.
On our parting
50
I saw her anguish—
What a moment
Of sorrow!
I saw her tears
And merciless grief—
55
It was greater
Than mine.
In irons, with opprobrium,
Others enjoy peace;
Not I who seek in war
60
Liberty or death.
“The cunning courtier4
May seek
For greatness in flattering the tyrant
And bending his knee.
65
My horse and humble saddle
I would not give for all his wealth.
And well may
His halls
Resound
70
With songs;
But the proud
Neighing
Of my charger
I prefer.
75
In irons, with opprobrium,
Others enjoy peace;
Not I who seek in war
Liberty or death.

1bellicose ardor: intense desire to fight
2intrepid:courageous
3opprobrium: disgrace or shame
4courtier: one who seeks favor from royalty or attends to royalty
From Google Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=YjtDAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=mexican+and+south+american+poems&source=bl&ots=Qp02Dc_rA8&sig=NX87ogoy9BQRtD8ry5R8OWqfAVU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xbRtUNOGB4Wy8QTtnYHQBQ&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA
“The Soldier of Liberty” by Fernando Calderon from Mexican and South American Poems (10/04/2012).

56. How does the switch from third-person narration to first-person dialogue affect the poem?

A. The tone becomes less intense.

B. The dialogue interferes with the plot.

C. The reader suspends belief as a result.

D. The events become more personal and real.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Hussar Song

From HungaryHussar Song
Hussar Song
by Gabriel Döbrentei
Mother! dost weep that thy boy’s right hand
Hath taken a sword for his father-land?
Mother! where should the brave one be
But in the ranks of bravery?
5
Mother! and was it not sad to leave
Mine own sweet maiden alone to grieve?
Julia! where should the brave one be
But in the ranks of bravery?
Mother! if thou in death were laid,
10
Julia! if thou were a treacherous maid;
O then it were well that the brave should be
In the front ranks of bravery.
Mother! the thought brings heavy tears,
And I look round on my youth’s compeers1;
15
They have their griefs and loves like me,
Touching the brave in their bravery.
Mother! my guardian! O be still;
Maiden! let hope thy bosom fill;
Kiral2 and country! how sweet to be
20
Battling for both in bravery!
Bravery—aye—and victory’s hand
Shall wreath my Saki3 with golden band
And in the camp the shout shall be,
O! how he fought for liberty!

1compeers: comrades, close friends
2Kiral: King
3Saki: French military cap
From Google Books at http://books.google.com/ (03/29/12)

57. What is the effect of beginning the final stanza with the word bravery?

A. It shows the speaker is fearless.

B. It shows the speaker needs reassurance.

C. It shows the speaker’s focus has changed.

D. It shows the speaker’s ability to inspire others.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from Anna Karenina: Chapter 3

Excerpt from Anna Karenina
by Leo Tolstoy
When Oblonsky asked Levin what had brought him to town, Levin blushed, and was furious with himself for blushing, because he could not answer, “I have come to make your sister-in-law an offer,“ though that was precisely what he had come for.
The families of the Levins and the Shtcherbatskys were old, noble Moscow families, and had always been on intimate and friendly terms. This intimacy had grown still closer during Levin’s student days. He had both prepared for the university with the young Prince Shtcherbatsky, the brother of Kitty and Dolly, and had entered at the same time with him. In those days Levin used often to be in the Shtcherbatskys’ house, and he was in love with the Shtcherbatsky household. Strange as it may appear, it was with the household, the family, that Konstantin Levin was in love, especially with the feminine half of the household. Levin did not remember his own mother, and his only sister was older than he was, so that it was in the Shtcherbatskys’ house that he saw for the first time that inner life of an old, noble, cultivated, and honorable family of which he had been deprived by the death of his father and mother.
All the members of that family, especially the feminine half, were pictured by him, as it were, wrapped about with a mysterious poetical veil, and he not only perceived no defects whatever in them, but under the poetical veil that shrouded them he assumed the existence of the loftiest sentiments and every possible perfection. Why it was the three young ladies had one day to speak French, and the next English; why it was that at certain hours they played by turns on the piano, the sounds of which were audible in their brother’s room above, where the students used to work; why they were visited by those professors of French literature, of music, of drawing, of dancing; why at certain hours all the three young ladies, with Mademoiselle Linon, drove in the coach to the Tversky Boulevard, dressed in their satin cloaks, Dolly in a long one, Natalia in a half-long one, and Kitty in one so short that her shapely legs in tightly-drawn red stockings were visible to all beholders; why it was they had to walk about the Tversky Boulevard escorted by a footman with a gold cockade in his hat—all this and much more that was done in their mysterious world he did not understand, but he was sure that everything that was done there was very good, and he was in love precisely with the mystery of the proceedings.
In his student days he had all but been in love with the eldest, Dolly, but she was soon married to Oblonsky. Then he began being in love with the second. He felt, as it were, that he had to be in love with one of the sisters, only he could not quite make out which. But Natalia, too, had hardly made her appearance in the world when she married the diplomat Lvov. Kitty was still a child when Levin left the university. Young Shtcherbatsky went into the navy, was drowned in the Baltic, and Levin’s relations with the Shtcherbatskys, in spite of his friendship with Oblonsky, became less intimate. But when early in the winter of this year Levin came to Moscow, after a year in the country, and saw the Shtcherbatskys, he realized which of the three sisters he was indeed destined to love.
One would have thought that nothing could be simpler than for him, a man of good family, rather rich than poor, and thirty-two years old, to make the young Princess Shtcherbatskaya an offer of marriage; in all likelihood he would at once have been looked upon as a good match. But Levin was in love, and so it seemed to him that Kitty was so perfect in every respect that she was a creature far above everything earthly; and that he was a creature so low and so earthly that it could not even be conceived that other people and she herself could regard him as worthy of her.
After spending two months in Moscow in a state of enchantment, seeing Kitty almost every day in society, into which he went so as to meet her, he abruptly decided that it could not be, and went back to the country.
Levin’s conviction that it could not be was founded on the idea that in the eyes of her family he was a disadvantageous and worthless match for the charming Kitty, and that Kitty herself could not love him. In her family’s eyes he had no ordinary, definite career and position in society, while his contemporaries by this time, when he was thirty-two, were already, one a colonel, and another a professor, another director of a bank and railways, or president of a board like Oblonsky. But he (he knew very well how he must appear to others) was a country gentleman, occupied in breeding cattle, shooting game, and building barns; in other words, a fellow of no ability, who had not turned out well, and who was doing just what, according to the ideas of the world, is done by people fit for nothing else.
The mysterious, enchanting Kitty herself could not love such an ugly person as he conceived himself to be, and, above all, such an ordinary, in no way striking person. Moreover, his attitude to Kitty in the past—the attitude of a grown-up person to a child, arising from his friendship with her brother—seemed to him yet another obstacle to love. An ugly, good-natured man, as he considered himself, might, he supposed, be liked as a friend; but to be loved with such a love as that with which he loved Kitty, one would need to be a handsome and, still more, a distinguished man.
He had heard that women often did care for ugly and ordinary men, but he did not believe it, for he judged by himself, and he could not himself have loved any but beautiful, mysterious, and exceptional women.
But after spending two months alone in the country, he was convinced that this was not one of those passions of which he had had experience in his early youth; that this feeling gave him not an instant’s rest; that he could not live without deciding the question, would she or would she not be his wife, and that his despair had arisen only from his own imaginings, that he had no sort of proof that he would be rejected. And he had now come to Moscow with a firm determination to make an offer, and get married if he were accepted. Or…he could not conceive what would become of him if he were rejected.

Project Gutenberg, 2005 at http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1399/pg1399.html (10/12/2012).

58. Which effect does paragraph 7 have on the overall selection?

A. It builds sympathy for Levin due to his self-degradation.

B. It lessens Kitty’s appeal by showing her distaste for Levin.

C. It increases admiration of Levin by showing his positive traits.

D. It creates suspense by showing that Levin has no chance with Kitty.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Solitude

Solitude
by Alexei Fyodorovich Merzlyakov
Upon a hill, which rears itself midst plains extending wide,
Fair flourishes a lofty oak in beauty’s blooming pride;
This lofty oak in solitude its branches wide expands,
All lonesome on the cheerless height like sentinel1 it stands.
5
Whom can it lend its friendly shade, should Sol with fervor glow?
And who can shelter it from harm, should tempests rudely blow?
No bushes green, entwining close, here deck the neighboring ground,
No tufted pines beside it grow, no osiers2 thrive around.
Sad even to trees their cheerless fate in solitude if grown,
10
And bitter, bitter is the lot for youth to live alone!
Though gold and silver much is his, how vain the selfish pride!
Though crowned with glory’s laureled wreath, with whom that crown divide?
When I with an acquaintance meet he scarce a bow affords,
And beauties, half saluting me, but grant some transient words.
15
On some I look myself with dread, whilst others from me fly,
But sadder still the uncherished soul when Fate’s dark hour draws nigh;
Oh! where my aching heart relieve when griefs assail me sore?
My friend, who sleeps in the cold earth, comes to my aid no more!
No relatives, alas! of mine in this strange clime appear,
20
No wife imparts love’s fond caress, sweet smile, or pitying tear;
No father feels joy’s thrilling throb, as he our transport sees;
No gay and sportive little ones come clambering on my knees;–
Take back all honors, wealth, and fame, the heart they cannot move,
And give instead the smiles of friends, the tender look of love!

1sentinel: the guard or watchers
2osiers: willow trees

Project Gutenberg, 2005. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/8192/old/bakch10h.htm (02/25/2013).

59. How does the speaker create sympathy in lines 18–22?

A. by explaining the death of his close friend

B. by listing the various causes of his solitude

C. by referencing his unfulfilled desire to start a family

D. by describing how his relatives have abandoned him

60. Which statement summarizes the poem?

A. The speaker is willing to sacrifice everything to avoid being alone.

B. The speaker is reveling in the beauty he observes in nature.

C. The speaker is lamenting his lack of a romantic partner.

D. The speaker is feeling elated by his wealth and power.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Stray Birds

Excerpt from “Stray Birds”
by Rabindranath Tagore
1
Stray birds of summer come to my window to sing and fly away. And yellow leaves of autumn, which have no songs, flutter and fall there with a sigh.
2
O troupe of little vagrants of the world, leave your footprints in my words.
3
The world puts off its mask of vastness to its lover. It becomes small as one song, as one kiss of the eternal.
4
It is the tears of the earth that keep her smiles in bloom.
5
The mighty desert is burning for the love of a blade of grass who shakes her head and laughs and flies away.
6
If you shed tears when you miss the sun, you also miss the stars.
7
The sands in your way beg for your song and your movement, dancing water. Will you carry the burden of their lameness?
8
Her wistful face haunts my dreams like the rain at night.
9
Once we dreamt that we were strangers. We wake up to find that we were dear to each other.
10
Sorrow is hushed into peace in my heart like the evening among the silent trees.
11
Some unseen fingers, like idle breeze, are playing upon my heart the music of the ripples.
12
“What language is thine, O sea?”
“The language of eternal question.”
“What language is thy answer, O sky?
“The language of eternal silence.”
13
Listen, my heart, to the whispers of the world with which it makes love to you.
14
The mystery of creation is like the darkness of night–it is great. Delusions* of knowledge are like the fog of the morning.
15
Do not seat your love upon a precipice because it is high.
16
I sit at my window this morning where the world like a passer-by stops for a moment, nods to me and goes.
17
These little thoughts are the rustle of leaves; they have their whisper of joy in my mind.
*delusions:
Project Gutenberg, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6524/6524-h/6524-h.htm (09/11/2012).

61. Which is the effect of the author’s inclusion of sections 6 and 15 in the selection?

A. They add a serious tone by giving the reader advice.

B. They create surprise by asking the reader questions.

C. They create tension by motivating the reader to think of past memories.

D. They build mystery by making the reader wonder about how to find love.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Love’s Festival

Love’s Festival
by Alojs Szentmiklossy
There are dark clouds upgathered in the heavens,
And the full moon can hardly look them through;
All nature sleeps, wrapp’d round in misty dew,
And the stars shine not, while in slumber’s arms
5
All find repose; lire’s heavy load forgot.
All? No! I in the green shade slumber not;
For a transporting hope holds all my soul,
Bound me the fragrant clouds of Jasmines roll.
’Twas here—’twas here she spoke at eventide;
10
Here said, Farewell! And will she come again
When fair Chitona fills her lamp?—In vain
I wait—that lamp is filled. Where tarries1 she?
Impatience, weary of her lingering, stands,
And doubt comes on the mind overwhelmingly.
15
She comes! she comes!—I hear the rustling leaves;
Nay, ’twas the trembling which my sighs awaken,
As gliding thro’ the branches idly shaken;
They rouse delusive thought, which only grieves.
What, what forbids her to these arms to flee!
20
Why would she make of love a mockery?
Why will she trifle with my misery? Why?
O ye warm-breathings of my bosom—plaints
Of deepest-drawn emotion—hasten—fly—
Break on her proud repose2—arouse and melt
25
Her frozen sympathies—awake, inspire
The sleeping passion, the concealed desire,
And make her feel what I so long have felt.
What! do I feel those round and beauteous arms,
White as the snows, enfolding me? ’Tis thou!
30
O thou art pouring streams of transport now,
And my heart beats ’gainst thine—O how it beats!
The raptures of thy spirit mine repeats—
And misery flies from mine exalted brow.
From thy sweet looks what peace and calmness flow!
35
The clouds are all departing,
And from thine eyes a flame of beauty darting,
Kindles the stars. The heaven’s bright blue
Smiles like a Lotus flower, and nightingales
Float their rich harmonies,
40
While odorous flow’r-sweets hang amidst the trees,
And silver-voices, in tuned madrigals,
Hang on the wings of love, breathing delight;
All joy and blessings all—while this sweet place
Anadiomen’s3 temple is—to lull
45
Our spirits to a rest so beautiful,
That here we may build up that temple bright
Where love’s best incense shall the altar grace.

1 tarries: delays; waits too long
2 repose: calmness; serenity
3Anadiomen’s: belonging to the Greek goddess Aphrodite

From Google Books at http://books.google.com/ (accessed 3/29/12)

62. Which reflects the speaker’s opinion about the woman he loves as described in stanza 3?

A. He truly believes she has the capacity to love him.

B. He believes she does not have the capacity to love.

C. He truly believes she is too proud to return his love.

D. He believes she does not know how much he loves her.

63. Which reflects the speaker’s belief about love in lines 43–44?

A. Love is a worshipful place of beauty and rest.

B. Love is a place to worship Greek goddesses.

C. Love is a place to build a temple of worship.

D. Love is a place that brings great tidings.

64. Which line from the poem does the speaker use to support his belief about the power of love?

A. “All nature sleeps, wrapp’d round in misty dew,”

B. “She comes! She comes!—I hear the rustling leaves;”

C. “And make her feel what I so long have felt.”

D. “From thy sweet looks what peace and calmness flow!”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from More Translations From the Chinese: “A Mad Poem Addressed to My Nephews and Nieces”

Excerpt from More Translations from the Chinese: “A Mad Poem Addressed to My Nephews and Nieces”
by Po Chü-I
The World cheats those who cannot read;
I, happily, have mastered script and pen.
The World cheats those who hold no office;
I am blessed with high official rank.
5
The old are often ill;
I, at this day have not an ache or pain.
They are often burdened with ties;
But I have finished with marriage and giving in marriage.
No changes happen to disturb the quiet of my mind;
10
No business comes to impair the vigor of my limbs.
Hence it is that now for ten years
Body and soul have rested in hermit peace.
And all the more, in the last lingering years
What I shall need are very few things.
15
A single rug to warm me through the winter;
One meal to last me the whole day.
It does not matter that my house is rather small;
One cannot sleep in more than one room!
It does not matter that I have not many horses;
20
One cannot ride in two coaches at once!
As fortunate as me among the people of the world
Possibly one would find seven out of ten.
As contented as me among a hundred men
Look as you may, you will not find one.
25
In the affairs of others even fools are wise;
In their own business even sages* err.
To no one else would I dare to speak my heart,
So my wild words are addressed to my nephews and nieces.

*sages: wise men

Project Gutenberg, 2005. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16500/16500-h.htm (08/08/2011).

65. How does the poem reflect the view that having limited possessions can be satisfying?

A. The speaker describes how peaceful it is being a hermit.

B. The speaker states that he no longer needs marriage in his life.

C. The speaker mentions the interruptions that business can cause.

D. The speaker lists which things he no longer needs in his remaining years.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from “Boys”

Excerpt from Boys
by Anton Chekhov
Volodya’s three sisters, Katya, Sonya, and Masha (the eldest was eleven), sat at the table and never took their eyes off the newcomer.
Lentilov was of the same height and age as Volodya, but not as round-faced and fair-skinned. He was thin, dark, and freckled; his hair stood up like a brush, his eyes were small, and his lips were thick. He was, in fact, distinctly ugly, and if he had not been wearing the school uniform, he might have been taken for the son of a cook. He seemed morose,1 did not speak, and never once smiled. The little girls, staring at him, immediately came to the conclusion that he must be a very clever and learned person. He seemed to be thinking about something all the time, and was so absorbed in his own thoughts, that, whenever he was spoken to, he started, threw his head back, and asked to have the question repeated.
The little girls noticed that Volodya, who had always been so merry and talkative, also said very little, did not smile at all, and hardly seemed to be glad to be home. All the time they were at tea he only once addressed his sisters, and then he said something so strange. He pointed to the samovar2 and said: “In California they don’t drink tea, but gin.”
He, too, seemed absorbed in his own thoughts, and, to judge by the looks that passed between him and his friend Lentilov, their thoughts were the same.
After tea, they all went into the nursery. The girls and their father took up the work that had been interrupted by the arrival of the boys. They were making flowers and frills for the Christmas tree out of paper of different colors. It was an attractive and noisy occupation. Every fresh flower was greeted by the little girls with shrieks of delight, even of awe, as though the flower had dropped straight from heaven; their father was in ecstasies too, and every now and then he threw the scissors on the floor, in vexation at their bluntness. Their mother kept running into the nursery with an anxious face, asking: “Who has taken my scissors? Ivan Nikolaitch, have you taken my scissors again?”
“Mercy on us! I’m not even allowed a pair of scissors!” their father would respond in a lachrymose3 voice, and, flinging himself back in his chair, he would pretend to be a deeply injured man; but a minute later, he would be in ecstasies again.
On his former holidays Volodya, too, had taken part in the preparations for the Christmas tree, or had been running in the yard to look at the snow mountain that the watchman and the shepherd were building. But this time Volodya and Lentilov took no notice whatever of the colored paper, and did not once go into the stable. They sat in the window and began whispering to one another; then they opened an atlas and looked carefully at a map.
“First to Perm . . .” Lentilov said, in an undertone, “from there to Tiumen, then Tomsk . . . then . . . then . . . Kamchatka. There the Samoyedes take one over Behring’s Straits in boats . . . . And then we are in America. . . . There are lots of furry animals there. . . .”
“And California?” asked Volodya.
“California is lower down. . . . We’ve only to get to America and California is not far off. . . . And one can get a living by hunting and plunder.”
1morose: gloomy
2samovar: large jar or container
3lachrymose: depressed or sad

Classic Reader. http://www.classicreader.com/book/3127/1/ (02/20/2013).

66. How does the reader know that Lentilov’s point-of-view about America is skewed?

A. He believes all Californians live difficult lives.

B. He believes all Californians live by hunting and plunder.

C. He has all condemning comments to make about America.

D. He has all complimentary comments to make about America.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from A House of Gentlefolk

Excerpt from A House of Gentlefolk
by Ivan S. Turgenev
Varvara Pavlovna’s father, Pavel Petrovitch Korobyin, a retired general-major, had spent his whole time on duty in Petersburg. He had had the reputation in his youth of a good dancer and driller. Through poverty, he had served as adjutant1 to two or three generals of no distinction, and had married the daughter of one of them with a dowry2 of twenty-five thousand roubles. He mastered all the science of military discipline and maneuvers to the minutest niceties, he went on in harness, till at last, after twenty-five years’ service, he received the rank of a general and the command of a regiment. Then he might have relaxed his efforts and have quietly secured his pecuniary3 position. Indeed this was what he reckoned upon doing, but he managed things a little incautiously.
He devised a new method of speculating with public funds—the method seemed an excellent one in itself—but he neglected to bribe in the right place, and was consequently informed against, and a more than unpleasant, a disgraceful scandal followed. The general got out of the affair somehow, but his career was ruined; he was advised to retire from active duty.
For two years he lingered on in Petersburg, hoping to drop into some snug berth in the civil service, but no such snug berth came in his way. His daughter had left school, his expenses were increasing every day. Resigning himself to his fate, he decided to move to Moscow for the sake of the greater cheapness of living, and took a tiny low-pitched house in the Old Stables Road, with a coat of arms seven feet long on the roof, and there began the life of a retired general in Moscow on an income of 2750 rubles a year.
Moscow is a hospitable city, ready to welcome all stray comers, generals by preference. Pavel Petrovitch’s heavy figure, which was not quite devoid of martial dignity, however, soon began to be seen in the best drawing-rooms in Moscow. His bald head with its tufts of dyed hair, and the soiled ribbon of the Order of St. Anne which he wore over a cravat of the color of a raven’s wing, began to be familiar to all the pale and listless young men who hang morosely about the card-tables while dancing is going on. Pavel Petrovitch knew how to gain a footing in society; he spoke little, but from old habit, condescendingly4—though, of course, not when he was talking to persons of a higher rank than his own.
He played cards carefully; ate moderately at home, but consumed enough for six at parties. Of his wife there is scarcely anything to be said. Her name was Kalliopa Karlovna. There was always a tear in her left eye, on the strength of which Kalliopa Karlovna (she was, one must add, of German extraction) considered herself a woman of great sensibility. She was always in a state of nervous agitation, seemed as though she were ill-nourished, and wore a tight velvet dress, a cap, and tarnished hollow bracelets. The only daughter of Pavel Petrovitch and Kalliopa Karlovna, Varvara Pavlovna, was only just seventeen when she left the boarding-school, in which she had been reckoned, if not the prettiest, at least the cleverest pupil and the best musician, and where she had taken a decoration. She was not yet nineteen, when Lavretsky saw her for the first time.
1adjutant: assistant
2dowry:a gift of money or goods a woman brings to her husband in marriage
3pecuniary: financial
4condescendingly: in a manner that shows a superior attitude
Classic Reader at http://www.classicreader.com/book/1787/14/ (03/27/2013).

67. Which sentence reflects Pavel Petrovitch Korobyin’s feelings of self-importance?

A. “He mastered all the science of military discipline and maneuvers to the minutest niceties.”

B. “The general got out of the affair somehow, but his career was ruined; he was advised to retire from active duty.”

C. “There [he] began the life of a retired general in Moscow on an income of 2750 rubles a year.”

D. “He spoke little, but from old habit, condescendingly—though, of course, not when he was talking to persons of a higher rank than his own.”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
My Lost Youth

My Lost Youth
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Often I think of the beautiful town
That is seated by the sea;
Often in thought go up and down
The pleasant streets of that dear old town,
5 And my youth comes back to me.
And a verse of a Lapland song
Is haunting my memory still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

10 I can see the shadowy lines of its trees,
And catch, in sudden gleams,
The sheen of the far-surrounding seas,
And islands that were the Hesperides
Of all my boyish dreams.
15 And the burden of that old song,
It murmurs and whispers still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

I remember the black wharves and the ships,
20 And the sea-tides tossing free;
And Spanish sailors with bearded lips,
And the beauty and mystery of the ships,
And the magic of the sea.
And the voice of that wayward song
25 Is singing and saying still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

I remember the bulwarks by the shore,
And the fort upon the hill;
30 The sunrise gun, with its hollow roar,
The drum-beat repeated o’er and o’er,
And the bugle wild and shrill.
And the music of that old song
Throbs in my memory still:
35 “A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

I remember the sea-fight far away,
How it thundered o’er the tide!
And the dead captains, as they lay
40 In their graves, o’erlooking the tranquil bay
Where they in battle died.
And the sound of that mournful song
Goes through me with a thrill:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
45 And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

I can see the breezy dome of groves,
The shadows of Deering’s Woods;
And the friendships old and the early loves
Come back with a Sabbath sound, as of doves
50 In quiet neighborhoods.
And the verse of that sweet old song,
It flutters and murmurs still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

55 I remember the gleams and glooms that dart
Across the school-boy’s brain;
The song and the silence in the heart,
That in part are prophecies, and in part
Are longings wild and vain.
60 And the voice of that fitful song
Sings on, and is never still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

There are things of which I may not speak;
65 There are dreams that cannot die;
There are thoughts that make the strong heart weak,
And bring a pallor into the cheek,
And a mist before the eye.
And the words of that fatal song
70 Come over me like a chill:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

Strange to me now are the forms I meet
When I visit the dear old town;
75 But the native air is pure and sweet,
And the trees that o’ershadow each well-known street,
As they balance up and down,
Are singing the beautiful song,
Are sighing and whispering still:
80 “A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

And Deering’s Woods are fresh and fair,
And with joy that is almost pain
My heart goes back to wander there,
85 And among the dreams of the days that were,
I find my lost youth again.
And the strange and beautiful song,
The groves are repeating it still:
“A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
90 And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.”

68. Read the following lines from the poem.
A boy’s will is the wind’s will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.

How do these lines contribute to the poem’s overall meaning?

A. They show that the speaker recognizes how foolish he was as a child.

B. They show that the speaker spends much of his time thinking about his childhood.

C. They create a contrast between the speaker’s memories about his boyhood home as a child and as an adult.

D. They create a contrast between how the speaker experienced the world as a child and how he experiences it as an adult.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Coliseum

The Coliseum

Type of the antique Rome! Rich reliquary
Of lofty contemplation left to Time
By buried centuries of pomp and power!
At length—at length—after so many days
5 Of weary pilgrimage and burning thirst,
(Thirst for the springs of lore that in thee lie,)
I kneel, an altered and an humble man,
Amid thy shadows, and so drink within
My very soul thy grandeur, gloom, and glory!

10 Vastness! and Age! and Memories of Eld!
Silence! and Desolation! and dim Night!
I feel ye now—I feel ye in your strength—
O spells more sure than e’er Judæan king
Taught in the gardens of Gethsemane!
15 O charms more potent than the rapt Chaldee
Ever drew down from out the quiet stars!

Here, where a hero fell, a column falls!
Here, where the mimic eagle glared in gold,
A midnight vigil holds the swarthy bat!
20 Here, where the dames of Rome their gilded hair
Waved to the wind, now wave the reed and thistle!
Here, where on golden throne the monarch lolled,
Glides, spectre-like, unto his marble home,
Lit by the wan light of the horned moon,
25 The swift and silent lizard of the stones!

But stay! these walls—these ivy-clad arcades—
These mouldering plinths—these sad and blackened shafts—
These vague entablatures—this crumbling frieze—
These shattered cornices—this wreck—this ruin—
30 These stones—alas! these gray stones—are they all—
All of the famed, and the colossal left
By the corrosive Hours to Fate and me?

“Not all”—the Echoes answer me—”not all!
Prophetic sounds and loud, arise forever
35 From us, and from all Ruin, unto the wise,
As melody from Memnon to the Sun.
We rule the hearts of mightiest men—we rule
With a despotic sway all giant minds.
We are not impotent—we pallid stones.
40 Not all our power is gone—not all our fame—
Not all the magic of our high renown—
Not all the wonder that encircles us—
Not all the mysteries that in us lie—
Not all the memories that hang upon
45 And cling around about us as a garment,
Clothing us in a robe of more than glory.”

69. What is the central focus of “The Coliseum” as it relates to the theme?

A. the destruction of the Coliseum

B. the beauty of Roman architecture

C. the entertainment at the Coliseum

D. the magnificence of the Roman past

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Lake Shore Road

From Canada
The Lake Shore Road
by Jean Blewett
‘Tis noon, the meadow stretches in the sun,
And every little spear of grass uplifts its slimness to the glow
To let the heavy-laden bees pass out.
A stream comes at a snail’s pace through the gloom
5
Of shrub and fern and brake,1
Leaps o’er a wall, goes singing on to find
The coolness of the lake.
A wild rose spreads her greenness on a hedge,
And flings her tinted blossoms in the air;
10
The sweetbriar neighbors with that porcupine
Of shrubs, the gooseberry; with parasol2
Of white the elderberry shades her head
And dreams of purple fruit and wine-press chill.
From off her four warm eggs of mottled3 shade,
15
A bird flies with a call of love and joy
That wins an answer straight
From that brown thing of gladness on a bough,
Too slight to hold him and his weight of song,
The proud and watchful mate.
20
The wind comes heavy freighted from the wood,
With jasmine, honeysuckle, iris, phlox,
And lilies red and white;
The blue lake murmurs, and the world seems all
A garden of delight.

1brake: a place overgrown with bushes
2parasol: a small umbrella
3mottled: mixed colors
Project Gutenberg, 2011. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/35779/35779-h/35779-h.htm#Page_207 (03/26/2013).

70. How does the use of personification contribute to the central idea of the poem?

A. It lends a feeling of enchantment to the forest.

B. It helps to share the story of the family of birds.

C. It contributes to the depiction of the forest as being alive.

D. It highlights the many animals and plants in the active forest.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt 2 from Stories By Foreign Authors: “Mumu”

Excerpt from Stories By Foreign Authors: “Mumu”
by Ivan Turgenev
Tatiana, one of the laundresses . . . (as a trained and skillful laundress she was in charge of the fine linen only), was a woman of twenty-eight, thin, fair-haired, with moles on her left cheek. Moles on the left cheek are regarded as an evil omen in Russia—a token of unhappy life . . . Tatiana could not boast of her good luck. From her earliest youth she had been badly treated; she had done the work of two, and had never known affection; she had been poorly clothed and had received the smallest wages. Relations she had practically none; an uncle she had once had, a butler, left behind in the country as useless, and other uncles of hers were peasants—that was all. At one time she had passed for a beauty, but her good looks were very soon over. In disposition, she was very meek, or, rather, scared; towards herself, she felt perfect indifference; of others, she stood in mortal dread; she thought of nothing but how to get her work done in good time, never talked to anyone, and trembled at the very name of her mistress, though the latter scarcely knew her by sight.
When Gerasim, [the mute], was brought from the country, she was ready to die with fear on seeing his huge figure, tried all she could to avoid meeting him, even dropped her eyelids when sometimes she chanced to run past him, hurrying from the house to the laundry. Gerasim at first paid no special attention to her, then he used to smile when she came his way, then he began even to stare admiringly at her, and at last he never took his eyes off her. She took his fancy, whether by the mild expression of her face or the timidity of her movements, who can tell?
One day she was stealing across the yard1 with a starched dressing-jacket of her mistress’s carefully poised on her outspread fingers . . . someone suddenly grasped her vigorously by the elbow; she turned round and fairly screamed; behind her stood Gerasim. With a foolish smile, making inarticulate caressing grunts, he held out to her a gingerbread rooster with gold tinsel on his tail and wings. She was about to refuse it, but he thrust it forcibly into her hand, shook his head, walked away, and turning round, once more grunted something very affectionately to her.
From that day forward he gave her no peace; wherever she went, he was on the spot at once, coming to meet her, smiling, grunting, waving his hands; all at once he would pull a ribbon out of the bosom of his smock and put it in her hand, or would sweep the dust out of her way. The poor girl simply did not know how to behave or what to do. Soon the whole household knew of the mute porter’s wiles; jeers, jokes, sly hints, were showered upon Tatiana. At Gerasim, however, it was not everyone who would dare to scoff; he did not like jokes; indeed, in his presence, she, too, was left in peace. Whether she liked it or not, the girl found herself to be under his protection. Like all deaf-mutes, he . . . very readily perceived when they were laughing at him or at her.
One day, at dinner, the wardrobe-keeper, Tatiana’s superior, fell to nagging, as it is called, at her, and brought the poor thing to such a state that she did not know where to look, and was almost crying with vexation.2 Gerasim got up all of a sudden, stretched out his gigantic hand, laid it on the wardrobe-maid’s head, and looked into her face with such grim ferocity that her head positively flopped upon the table. Everyone was still. Gerasim took up his spoon again and went on with his cabbage-soup . . . Another time, noticing that Kapiton . . . was gossiping somewhat too attentively with Tatiana, Gerasim beckoned him to him, led him into the cartshed, and taking up a shaft that was standing in a corner by one end, lightly, but most significantly, menaced3 him with it. Since then no one addressed a word to Tatiana. And all this cost him nothing.

1stealing across the yard: carefully moving or walking
2vexation: frustration
3menaced: threatened
Stories by Foreign Authors: “Mumu” by Ivan Turgenev. Project Gutenberg, 2004. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5741/pg5741.html (11/06/12).

71. How does Gerasim’s character contribute to the the theme of the selection?

A. He provides Tatiana with positive attention missing from her life.

B. He provides Tatiana relief from the worries of her work.

C. He causes Tatiana to fear his persistent attention.

D. He causes Tatiana to lose trust in his intentions.

72. Which shows the development of Tatiana’s character in the selection?

A. She first fears Gerasim but later realizes he wants to protect her.

B. She continues to keep to herself due to her extreme fear of Gerasim.

C. She continues to have the ability to respond appropriately in social situations.

D. She first appreciates the protection from Gerasim because she fears for her safety.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt 2 from The Trial: “The Arrest”

Excerpt from The Trial: “The Arrest”
by Franz Kafka
It was already gone half past eleven when someone could be heard in the stairway. K., who had been lost in his thoughts in the hallway, walking up and down loudly as if it were his own room, fled behind his door. Miss Bürstner had arrived. Shivering, she pulled a silk shawl over her slender shoulders as she locked the door. The next moment she would certainly go into her room, where K. ought not to intrude in the middle of the night; that meant he would have to speak to her now, but, unfortunately, he had not put the electric light on in his room so that when he stepped out of the dark it would give the impression of being an attack and would certainly, at the very least, have been quite alarming.
There was no time to lose, and in his helplessness he whispered through the crack of the door, “Miss Bürstner.” It sounded like he was pleading with her, not calling to her.
“Is there someone there?” asked Miss Bürstner, looking round with her eyes wide open.
“It’s me,” said K. and came out.
“Oh, Mr. K.!” said Miss Bürstner with a smile. “Good Evening,” and offered him her hand.
“I wanted to have a word with you, if you would allow me?”
“Now?” asked Miss Bürstner, “does it have to be now? It is a little odd, isn’t it?”
“I’ve been waiting for you since nine o’clock.”

“Well, I was at the theatre, I didn’t know anything about you waiting for me.”
“The reason I need to speak to you only came up today.”
“I see, well I don’t see why not, I suppose, apart from being so tired I could drop. Come into my room for a few minutes then. We certainly can’t talk out here, we’d wake everyone up and I think that would be more unpleasant for us than for them. Wait here till I’ve put the light on in my room, and then turn the light down out here.”
K. did as he was told, and then even waited until Miss Bürstner came out of her room and quietly invited him, once more, to come in. “Sit down,” she said, indicating the ottoman, while she herself remained standing by the bedpost despite the tiredness she had spoken of; she did not even take off her hat, which was small but decorated with an abundance of flowers. “What is it you wanted, then? I’m really quite curious.” She gently crossed her legs.
“I expect you’ll say,” K. began, “that the matter really isn’t all that urgent and we don’t need to talk about it right now, but . . .”
“I never listen to introductions,” said Miss Bürstner.
“That makes my job so much easier,” said K. “This morning, to some extent through my fault, your room was made a little untidy, this happened because of people I did not know and against my will but, as I said, because of my fault; I wanted to apologize for it.”
“My room?” asked Miss Bürstner, and instead of looking round the room scrutinized K.
“It is true,” said K., and now, for the first time, they looked each other in the eyes, “there’s no point in saying exactly how this came about.”
“But that’s the interesting thing about it,” said Miss Bürstner.
“No,” said K.
“Well then,” said Miss Bürstner, “I don’t want to force my way into any secrets, if you insist that it’s of no interest I won’t insist. I’m quite happy to forgive you for it, as you ask, especially as I can’t see anything at all that’s been left untidy.”
With her hand laid flat on her lower hip, she made a tour around the room. At the mat where the photographs were she stopped. “Look at this!” she cried. “My photographs really have been put in the wrong places. Oh, that’s horrible. Someone really has been in my room without permission.” K. nodded, and quietly cursed Kaminer who worked at his bank and who was always active doing things that had neither use nor purpose.
“It is odd,” said Miss Bürstner, “that I’m forced to forbid you to do something that you ought to have forbidden yourself to do, namely to come into my room when I’m not here.”
“But I did explain to you,” said K., and went over to join her by the photographs, “that it wasn’t me who interfered with your photographs; but as you don’t believe me I’ll have to admit that the investigating committee brought along three bank employees with them, one of them must have touched your photographs and as soon as I get the chance I’ll ask to have him dismissed from the bank. Yes, there was an investigating committee here,” added K., as the young lady was looking at him enquiringly.
“Because of you?” she asked.
“Yes,” answered K.
“No!” the lady cried with a laugh.
“Yes, they were,” said K., “you believe that I’m innocent then, do you?”
“Well now, innocent . . .” said the lady, “I don’t want to start making any pronouncements that might have serious consequences, I don’t really know you after all, it means they’re dealing with a serious criminal if they send an investigating committee straight out to get him. But you’re not in custody now—at least I take it you’ve not escaped from prison considering that you seem quite calm—so you can’t have committed any crime of that sort.”
“Yes,” said K., “but it might be that the investigating committee could see that I’m innocent, or not so guilty as had been supposed.”
“Yes, that’s certainly a possibility,” said Miss Bürstner, who seemed very interested.
“Listen,” said K., “you don’t have much experience in legal matters.”
“No, that’s true, I don’t,” said Miss Bürstner, “and I’ve often regretted it, as I’d like to know everything and I’m very interested in legal matters. There’s something peculiarly attractive about the law, isn’t there? But I’ll certainly be perfecting my knowledge in this area, as next month I start work in a legal office.”
“That’s very good,” said K., “that means you’ll be able to give me some help with my trial.”
“That could well be,” said Miss Bürstner. “Why not? I like to make use of what I know.”
“I mean it quite seriously,” said K., “or at least, half seriously, as you do. This affair is too petty to call in a lawyer, but I could make good use of someone who could give me advice.”
“Yes, but if I’m to give you advice I’ll have to know what it’s all about,” said Miss Bürstner.
“That’s exactly the problem,” said K., “I don’t know that myself.”
“So you have been making fun of me, then,” said Miss Bürstner exceedingly disappointed, “you really ought not to try something like that on at this time of night.”
And she stepped away from the photographs where they had stood so long together.
“Miss Bürstner, no,” said K., “I’m not making fun of you. Please believe me! I’ve already told you everything I know. More than I know, in fact, as it actually wasn’t even an investigating committee, that’s just what I called them because I don’t know what else to call them. There was no cross questioning at all, I was merely arrested, but by a committee.”
Miss Bürstner sat on the ottoman and laughed again. “What was it like then?” she asked.
“It was terrible” said K., although his mind was no longer on the subject, he had become totally absorbed by Miss Bürstner’s gaze who was supporting her chin on one hand—the elbow rested on the cushion of the ottoman—and slowly stroking her hip with the other.
“That’s too vague,” said Miss Bürstner.
“What’s too vague?” asked K. Then he remembered himself and asked, “Would you like me to show you what it was like?” He wanted to move in some way but did not want to leave.
“I’m already tired,” said Miss Bürstner.
“You arrived back so late,” said K. “Now you’ve started telling me off. Well I suppose I deserve it as I shouldn’t have let you in here in the first place, and it turns out there wasn’t even any point.”
“Oh, there was a point, you’ll see now how important a point it was,” said K. “May I move this table away from your bedside and put it here?”
“What do you think you’re doing?” said Miss Bürstner. “Of course you can’t!”
“In that case I can’t show you,” said K., quite upset, as if Miss Bürstner had committed some incomprehensible offense against him.
“Alright then, if you need it to show what you mean, just take the bedside table then,” said Miss Bürstner, and after a short pause added in a weak voice,
“I’m so tired I’m allowing more than I ought to.” K. put the little table in the middle of the room and sat down behind it.
“You have to get a proper idea of where the people were situated, it is very interesting. I’m the supervisor, sitting over there on the chest are two policemen, standing next to the photographs there are three young people. Hanging on the handle of the window is a white blouse—I just mention that by the way. And now it begins. Ah yes, I’m forgetting myself, the most important person of all, so I’m standing here in front of the table. The supervisor is sitting extremely comfortably with his legs crossed and his arm hanging over the backrest here like some layabout. And now it really does begin. The supervisor calls out as if he had to wake me up, in fact he shouts at me, I’m afraid, if I’m to make it clear to you, I’ll have to shout as well, and it’s nothing more than my name that he shouts out.”
Miss Bürstner, laughing as she listened to him, laid her forefinger on her mouth so that K. would not shout, but it was too late. K. was too engrossed in his role and slowly called out, “Josef K.!”. It was not as loud as he had threatened, but nonetheless, once he had suddenly called it out, the cry seemed gradually to spread itself all round the room.

Project Gutenberg, 2005 at http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/7849/pg7849.html (8/6/2012).
This is a COPYRIGHTED Translation from Project Gutenberg eBook from The Trial: Chapter One. Copyright (C) 2003 by David Wyllie.

73. What does paragraph 42 reveal about K.’s attitude toward Miss Bürstner?

A. K. finds her attractive.

B. K. is curious about her.

C. K. is intimidated by her.

D. K. sees her as an adversary.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt 1 from “The Outrage – A True Story”

From Russia
Excerpt from “The Outrage—A True Story”
by Aleksandr I. Kuprin
The gentleman in the sandy suit bowed just his head, neatly and easily, and said with a half-question in his voice: “Mr. Chairman?”
“Yes. I am the chairman. What is your business?”
“We—all whom you see before you,” the gentleman began in a quiet voice and turned round to indicate his companions, “we come as delegates from the United Rostov-Kharkov-and-Odessa-Nikolayev Association of Thieves.”
The barristers1 began to shift in their seats.
The chairman flung himself back and opened his eyes wide. “Association of what?” he said, perplexed.
“The Association of Thieves,” the gentleman in the sandy suit coolly repeated. “As for myself, my comrades did me the signal honor of electing me as the spokesman of the deputation.”
“Very . . . pleased,” the chairman said uncertainly.
“Thank you. All seven of us are ordinary thieves—naturally of different departments. The Association has authorized us to put before your esteemed Committee”—the gentleman again made an elegant bow—“our respectful demand for assistance.”
“I don’t quite understand . . . quite frankly . . . what is the connection . . .” The chairman waved his hands helplessly. “However, please go on.”
“The matter about which we have the courage and the honor to apply to you, gentlemen, is very clear, very simple, and very brief. It will take only six or seven minutes. I consider it my duty to warn you of this beforehand, in view of the late hour and the 115 degrees that Fahrenheit marks in the shade.” The orator expectorated2 slightly and glanced at his superb gold watch. “You see, in the reports that have lately appeared in the local papers of the melancholy and terrible days of the last pogrom,3 there have very often been indications that among the instigators of the pogrom who were paid and organized by the police—the dregs of society, consisting of drunkards, tramps, souteneurs, and hooligans from the slums—thieves were also to be found. At first we were silent, but finally we considered ourselves under the necessity of protesting against such an unjust and serious accusation, before the face of the whole of intellectual society. I know well that in the eye of the law we are offenders and enemies of society. But imagine only for a moment, gentlemen, the situation of this enemy of society when he is accused wholesale of an offense which he not only never committed, but which he is ready to resist with the whole strength of his soul. It goes without saying that he will feel the outrage of such an injustice more keenly than a normal, average, fortunate citizen. Now, we declare that the accusation brought against us is utterly devoid of4 all basis, not merely of fact but even of logic. I intend to prove this in a few words if the honorable committee will kindly listen.”
“Proceed,” said the chairman.
“Please do . . . Please . . .” was heard from the barristers, now animated.
“I offer you my sincere thanks in the name of all my comrades. Believe me, you will never repent your attention to the representatives of our . . . well, let us say, slippery, but nevertheless difficult, profession. ‘So we begin,’ as Giraldoni sings in the prologue to Pagliacci.”

1barristers: lawyers who may argue in the higher courts
2 expectorated: cleared his throat
3pogrom: an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group
4devoid of: completely lacking

Project Gutenberg, 2004. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13437/pg13437.html (02/25/2013).

74. According to the speaker, what is the biggest difference between The Association of Thieves and what he calls “the dregs of society”?

A. their levels of economic success

B. their inclusion in an intellectual society

C. the seriousness of the crimes they commit

D. a moral objection to being part of the pogroms

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Pride Goeth Before a Fall

Pride Goeth Before a Fall
a tale from Southern India retold by Joseph Jacobs
1. In a certain village there lived ten cloth merchants, who always went about together. Once upon a time they had travelled far afield, and were returning home with a great deal of money which they had obtained by selling their wares. Now there happened to be a dense forest near their village, and this they reached early one morning. In it there lived three notorious robbers, of whose existence the traders had never heard, and while they were still in the middle of it the robbers stood before them, with swords and cudgels in their hands, and ordered them to lay down all they had. The traders had no weapons with them, and so, though they were many more in number, they had to submit themselves to the robbers, who took away everything from them, even the very clothes they wore, and gave to each only a small loin-cloth a span in breadth and a cubit in length.
2. The idea that they had conquered ten men and plundered all their property, now took possession of the robbers’ minds. They seated themselves like three monarchs before the men they had plundered, and ordered them to dance to them before returning home. The merchants now mourned their fate. They had lost all they had, except their loin-cloth, and still the robbers were not satisfied, but ordered them to dance.
3. There was, among the ten merchants, one who was very clever. He pondered over the calamity that had come upon him and his friends, the dance they would have to perform, and the magnificent manner in which the three robbers had seated themselves on the grass. At the same time he observed that these last had placed their weapons on the ground, in the assurance of having thoroughly cowed the traders, who were now commencing to dance. So he took the lead in the dance, and, as a song is always sung by the leader on such occasions, to which the rest keep time with hands and feet, he thus began to sing:
4. “We are enty men, They are erith men: If each erith man, Surround eno men Eno man remains. Tâ, tai, tôm, tadingana.”
5. The robbers were all uneducated, and thought that the leader was merely singing a song as usual. So it was in one sense; for the leader commenced from a distance, and had sung the song over twice before he and his companions commenced to approach the robbers. They had understood his meaning, because they had been trained in trade.
6. When two traders discuss the price of an article in the presence of a purchaser, they use a riddling sort of language.
7. “What is the price of this cloth?” one trader will ask another.
8. “Enty rupees,” another will reply, meaning “ten rupees.”
9. Thus, there is no possibility of the purchaser knowing what is meant unless he be acquainted with trade language. By the rules of this secret language erith means “three,” enty means “ten,” and eno means “one.” So the leader by his song meant to hint to his fellow-traders that they were ten men, the robbers only three, that if three pounced upon each of the robbers, nine of them could hold them down, while the remaining one bound the robbers’ hands and feet.
10. The three thieves, glorying in their victory, and little understanding the meaning of the song and the intentions of the dancers, were proudly seated chewing betel and tobacco. Meanwhile the song was sung a third time. Tâ tai tôm had left the lips of the singer; and, before tadingana was out of them, the traders separated into parties of three, and each party pounced upon a thief. The remaining one—the leader himself—tore up into long narrow strips a large piece of cloth, six cubits long, and tied the hands and feet of the robbers. These were entirely humbled now, and rolled on the ground like three bags of rice!
11. The ten traders now took back all their property, and armed themselves with the swords and cudgels of their enemies; and when they reached their village, they often amused their friends and relatives by relating their adventure.

75. What detail about the robbers’ personalities is necessary to advance the plot of the story?

A. In it there lived three notorious robbers, . . . . (paragraph 1)

B. . . . who took away everything from them, even the very clothes they wore, . . . . (paragraph 1)

C. The idea that they had conquered ten men . . . now took possession of the robbers’ minds. (paragraph 2)

D. . . . the three robbers seated themselves on the grass. (paragraph 3)

________________________________________
76. Read the sentence.

Our trip to Virginia has three purposes: to visit relatives, to tour Civil War sites, and do genealogy research.

What is the correct way to write the sentence so the construction is parallel?

A. Our trip to Virginia has three purposes: visit relatives, to tour Civil War sites, and research genealogy.

B. Our trip to Virginia has three purposes: to visit relatives, to tour Civil War sites, and to research genealogy.

C. Our trip to Virginia has three purposes: we will visit relatives, Civil War sites, and we will research genealogy.

D. Our trip to Virginia has three purposes: that of visiting relatives, touring Civil War sites, and we will be researching genealogy.

77. Read this sentence.
When writing a paper, students should prepare an introduction, develop the topic in the body of the essay, and there should be a conclusion at the end.
What is the correct way to write the sentence so the construction is parallel?

A. When writing a paper, students should prepare an introduction, a topic in the body of the essay, and a strong conclusion at the end.

B. When writing a paper, students should prepare an introduction, develop the topic in the body of the essay, and end with a strong conclusion.

C. When writing a paper, an introduction is first, the body of the essay is developed next, and students should end the essay with a strong conclusion.

D. When writing a paper, there should be an introduction, the topic should be developed in the body of an essay, and students should conclude strongly at the end.

78. Which sentence includes an example of parallel structure?

A. A good friend should be very patient and a good listener.

B. I walked by a giraffe on my way to school and by a zebra on my way home.

C. The teacher discussed using adverbs, combining sentences, and adjectives.

D. My uncle is a daredevil; he knows how to skydive and goes spelunking.

79. Read the sentence.
To successfully complete the audition, they had to sing a vocal selection, they had to perform a dance number, and could recite a few lines from a drama.
What is the correct way to write the sentence so the construction is parallel?

A. To successfully complete the audition, they had to sing a vocal selection, perform a dance number, and they had to recite a few lines from a drama.

B. To successfully complete the audition, they had to sing a vocal selection, perform a dance number, and had to recite a few lines from a drama.

C. To successfully complete the audition, they had to sing a vocal selection, they had to perform a dance number, and recite a few lines from a drama.

D. To successfully complete the audition, they had to sing a vocal selection, perform a dance number, and recite a few lines from a drama.

 

 

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English II EOC Review Part 12

Read the following and answer the questions below:
In Focus: Janet Daley

In Focus: Janet Daley
by Maggie Riechers
“Besides family, books are my greatest treasure,” says Janet Daley, executive director of The North Dakota Humanities Council. Her love of literature and her devotion to her native state have fueled Daley’s mission to bring the humanities1 to North Dakota’s far-flung small towns, rural communities, and Indian reservations. As one who has lived in North Dakota all her life, she has a special understanding of the state. “There are only 650,000 people in North Dakota, and it’s a very educated populace. The entire state is like a small town.”
While the state may have a hometown feeling, most of its real small towns are miles apart. Bringing them together is a favorite project of Daley’s: North Dakota Reads. The book discussion program, which uses NEH2 matching funds, is now in nine communities. “It’s the first time we’ve done anything like this in North Dakota,” says Daley. “We’ve been able to lower the costs for speakers to make them more affordable to the communities. With my own background in literature, North Dakota Reads is so exciting to me.”
Under the program, the Humanities Council works with local and school libraries to supply books, a gathering place, and a guest speaker for discussion meetings on assigned books. The program focuses on authors such as Louise Erdrich, Larry Watson, and Larry Woiwode who have childhood ties to the state.
As a Phi Beta Kappa3 graduate of the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, with bachelor’s and master’s degrees in English, and experience in teaching, writing and editing, and publishing, Daley is well-equipped to take on the job of increasing humanities awareness throughout the state. She grew up in Nash, a town of about fifty people, and from childhood loved reading and books. Daley began her career teaching English in secondary schools. After she moved to Bismarck, she became the publications editor at the State Historical Society of North Dakota, editing the state scholarly journal, North Dakota History, as well as editing and publishing more than a dozen books. Later she became a freelance editor working on book projects for, among others, the North Dakota Institute of Regional Studies, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and Syracuse University Press, where she was content editor and a contributor to the Encyclopedia of New York State.
“My education and professional experience have come together in serendipitous fashion to prepare for this job,” says Daley. “But growing up in North Dakota, where education matters and people care about their neighbors, is probably the best grounding I could have to help provide humanities — ways of connecting people to ideas and an understanding of what makes us all humans—for my fellow North Dakotans.” Besides literature, the history of North Dakota and the culture of the Plains are important topics to Daley. One of the Humanities Council programs provides resources for the state’s middle schoolers who are required to take North Dakota history in eighth grade. Because there is no state history textbook, the council developed materials for schools, including its newspaper, The North Star Dakotan, which reports the news during different eras of the state’s history. “This newspaper speaks directly to a need for classrooms and all North Dakotans,” says Daley. Issue Five, for example, covers 1915 to 1940 and includes articles such as “European War Worries North Dakotans Most Against Intervention,” from December 15, 1915, and “Farmers Told ‘Go Home and Slop the Hog,’ State-Owned Elevator Bill is Dead,” dated February 4, 1915.
The Council has not neglected its Indian population, which comprises five percent of the state. In the spring of 2005, the Council sponsored a tour of reservations of the film Water Buster, which portrayed the damage to the Indian population when the building of the Garrison Dam flooded many small towns on reservations. “We’re working with Indians across the state,” says Daley. “We want to bridge cultural divides where they exist through appreciation of history, culture, and arts.”
“Our small towns need the humanities,” says Daley. “We want to make sure our programs reach to Main Street, to the people and where they live.”

1humanities: branches of knowledge that investigate human beings, their culture, and their self-expression
2NEH: a grant-making agency dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities
3Phi Beta Kappa: academic honor society with the mission of fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences
HUMANITIES, May/June 2006, Vol. 27, No. 3

24. How does the author explain what Daley believes contributed to her preparation for her current position?

A. “Her love of literature and her devotion to her native state have fueled Daley’s mission to bring the humanities to North Dakota.”

B. “As one who has lived in North Dakota all her life, she has a special understanding of the state.”

C. “ ‘But growing up in North Dakota, where education matters and people care about their neighbors, is probably the best grounding I could have to help provide humanities.’ ”

D. “ ‘We want to bridge cultural divides where they exist through appreciation of history, culture, and arts.’ ”

25. How does the author use paragraph 3 to enhance her ideas about Janet Daley’s contribution to North Dakota?

A. She offers a firsthand example of how enthusiastic Janet Daley is about her work in North Dakota.

B. She provides a detailed description of one of The North Dakota Humanities Council’s programs.

C. She supports the claim that though small, North Dakota contains a very educated populace.

D. She describes a specific need of many of the isolated small towns in rural North Dakota.

26. How does paragraph 5 develop the idea that “the history of North Dakota and the culture of the Plains are important topics to Daley”?

A. by describing Daley’s background in publishing and editing

B. by discussing Daley’s interest in connecting people to ideas

C. by describing Daley’s role in providing resource materials to schools

D. by discussing how Daley provides humanities resources to state residents

27. Which paragraph develops the idea that Daley is well-suited for her position?

A. Paragraph 1

B. Paragraph 2

C. Paragraph 4

D. Paragraph 5

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Surfing the Internet Gets Deep

Surfing the Internet Gets Deep
by Stacy W. Kish
WorldWideScience provides a one-stop search engine to mine global scientific databases in the deep web
The Internet has revolutionized society by changing the way people communicate, find information, and enjoy entertainment. But a standard Internet search misses at least 90 percent of the information available.
The Internet is separated into two unequal pools of information. The surface web contains pages of information that are utilized by popular search engines. The second pool of information is locked away in the deep web, which consists of countless databases world wide.
According to Walt Warnick, Director of the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), “The deep web is huge.”
Common browsers like Google and Yahoo crawl across the thousands of Internet pages on the surface web, but are unable to dig into the databases to retrieve information from the deep web.
“Asking a scientist, engineer, or educator to find information in their field using common web browsers is like asking a doctor to diagnose disease without X-rays, MRI, or any other piece of diagnostic equipment” said Warnick.
Information in the deep web can only be mined for data using search engines designed for that particular database. Many of the search engines that are available to mine databases often do not use relevance ranking, making filtering through the information a crap shoot1.
“Under the current system, finding information in the deep web is a series of practical impossibilities, placing internet users, especially scientists and science educators, at a severe disadvantage,” said Warnick.
To address the global science need, OSTI has launched WorldWideScience.org, a science gateway that accelerates the search for data in national and international scientific databases and portals2 on the Internet. The data spans physical and life sciences as well as medical studies.
Warnick called the development of this technology “a series of sequential miracles” that makes the deep web accessible to a wider audience where billions of dollars worth of government-sponsored scientific research results reside.
WorldWideScience provides a one-stop search engine for global scientific databases. When a query is entered into the search engine, it is transmitted to the gateway server at OSTI in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Going beyond the capabilities of the common web crawler, which searches the Internet horizontally; this new search engine adds the enhanced capability of simultaneously searching a select group of databases vertically.
Since the debut of the search engine prototype in 2007, WorldWideScience has expanded from 10 to 56 participating countries. China is the most recent country to contribute to the search engine, opening a wealth of scientific information to the world. The search engine now scours more than 375 million pages of scientific information contained in deep web databases.
Despite these advances, there is more work to do. Currently, WorldWideScience is limited to searching databases with English titles and abstracts. This constraint confines the number of databases accessible by the search engine. The Alliance is now exploring translation technologies to expand the network of databases accessible to the worldwide community and is making progress toward deploying3 this capability.

1crap shoot: difficult; going in many directions
2portals: openings; places to look
3deploying: spreading out; utilizing
U.S. Department of Energy. http://science.energy.gov/news/in-focus/2009/08-04-09-s/ (07/27/12).

28. How does paragraph 6 contribute to the development of the overall topic?

A. It specifies how information in the deep web is stored.

B. It exposes some of the drawbacks of the new search engine.

C. It describes the importance of having better access to research.

D. It explains why information in the deep web can be difficult to access.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Up From Slavery: An Autobiography

Excerpt from Up From Slavery: An Autobiography
by Booker T. Washington
From the very beginning, at Tuskegee, I was determined to have the students do not only the agricultural and domestic work, but to have them erect their own buildings. My plan was to have them, while performing this service, taught the latest and best methods of labor, so that the school would not only get the benefit of their efforts, but the students themselves would be taught to see not only utility in labor, but beauty and dignity; would be taught, in fact, how to lift labor up from mere drudgery1 and toil, and would learn to love work for its own sake. My plan was not to teach them to work in the old way, but to show them how to make the forces of nature—air, water, steam, electricity, horsepower—assist them in their labor.
At first many advised against the experiment of having the buildings erected by the labor of the students, but I was determined to stick to it. I told those who doubted the wisdom of the plan that I knew that our first buildings would not be so comfortable or so complete in their finish as buildings erected by the experienced hands of outside workmen, but that in the teaching of civilization, self-help, and self-reliance, the erection of buildings by the students themselves would more than compensate for any lack of comfort or fine finish.
I further told those who doubted the wisdom of this plan, that the majority of our students came to us in poverty, from the cabins of the cotton, sugar, and rice plantations of the South, and that while I knew it would please the students very much to place them at once in finely constructed buildings, I felt that it would be following out a more natural process of development to teach them how to construct their own buildings. Mistakes I knew would be made, but these mistakes would teach us valuable lessons for the future.
During the now nineteen years’ existence of the Tuskegee school, the plan of having the buildings erected by student labor has been adhered2 to. In this time forty buildings, counting small and large, have been built, and all except four are almost wholly the product of student labor. As an additional result, hundreds of men are now scattered throughout the South who received their knowledge of mechanics while being taught how to erect these buildings. Skill and knowledge are now handed down from one set of students to another in this way, until at the present time a building of any description or size can be constructed wholly by our instructors and students, from the drawing of the plans to the putting in of the electric fixtures, without going off the grounds for a single workman.
Not a few times, when a new student has been led into the temptation of marring the looks of some building by lead pencil marks or by the cuts of a jack-knife, I have heard an old student remind him: “Don’t do that. That is our building. I helped put it up.”

1drudgery: tiring work
2adhered: stuck to; followed

Project Gutenberg, 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2376/2376-h/2376-h.htm (02/22/2013).

29. Which describes the author’s views on the relationship between students and work?

A. Students should view work as essential.

B. Students often view work as a diversion.

C. Students should view work as honorable.

D. Students often view work as an adult activity.

30. How does the final paragraph contribute to the author’s point of view?

A. It shows the significance of teaching skills to young people.

B. It explains the effectiveness of Washington’s plan.

C. It affirms the students’ respect for their buildings.

D. It confirms that students can learn construction.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Problem With Paper

The Problem with Paper
Some members of the pulp and paper industry are leaving an unacceptably large ecological footprint on the planet. Irresponsible pulpwood harvesting and expanding pulpwood plantations threaten fragile ecosystems and create social problems.
In some places, such as in Indonesia, deforestation caused by unsustainable pulpwood harvesting contributes to climate change.
The pulp and paper manufacturing industry is among the world’s largest users of energy and emitters of greenhouse gases, and a significant source of water pollution and landfill waste.
Paper production is causing a large ecological footprint on forests, as around 40% of the world’s commercially cut timber is processed for paper.
While some of this timber is grown in well-managed forests, too much of it is the result of illegal logging and the irresponsible destruction of old-growth and high conservation value forests.
Some proposed new pulpwood plantations and mills threaten natural habitats in many places with high conservation values.
For example, the remaining natural forests in Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea, Russian Far East, Southern Chile and the Atlantic forest region in Brazil are endangered because of growing demand for pulpwood, among other threats. This has a knock on effect on several rare species including tigers, Asian elephants, Asian rhinos, and orangutans.
What is Causing Forest Conversion?
Rising demand for soy, palm oil, cocoa and coffee is translating into expanding plantations for these crops worldwide. Versatile products like soy and palm oil are found in anything from animal feed to bread, and from lipstick to burgers—hence their popularity. This human ‘footprint’ on the Earth shows how our behavior in one part of the world can have negative impact on tropical forests and the people living in other part of world.
Cheap land, labor, and government subsidies are creating more and more supplies of agricultural goods to meet needs for increased production.
Poorly implemented environmental regulations are added incentives for some landowners and producers to convert forests for plantations inside protected areas, intimidate local people so that they are driven off their land, and set fires to clear land with little fear for interference by authorities.
World Wildlife Federation. at http://wwf.panda.org (03/30/12).

31. Which line in the selection shows that the author cares about wildlife?

A. “Irresponsible pulpwood harvesting and expanding pulpwood plantations threaten fragile ecosystems and create social problems.”

B. “Some proposed new pulpwood plantations and mills threaten natural habitats in many places with high conservation values.”

C. “This has a knock on effect on several rare species including tigers, Asian elephants, Asian rhinos, and orangutans.”

D. “Versatile products like soy and palm oil are found in anything from animal feed to bread.”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
How Dependent Are we on Foreign Oil?

How Dependent Are We on Foreign Oil?
The United States imported about 49% of the petroleum, which includes crude oil and refined petroleum products, that we consumed during 2010. About half of these imports came from the Western Hemisphere. Our dependence on foreign petroleum has declined since peaking in 2005.
The United States consumed 19.1 million barrels per day (MMbd) of petroleum products during 2010, making us the world’s largest petroleum consumer. The United States was third in crude oil production at 5.5 MMbd. But crude oil alone does not constitute all U.S. petroleum supplies. Significant gains occur, because crude oil expands in the refining process, liquid fuel is captured in the processing of natural gas, and we have other sources of liquid fuel, including biofuels. These additional supplies totaled 4.2 MMbd in 2010.
In 2010 the United States imported 11.8 million barrels per day (MMbd) of crude oil and refined petroleum products. We also exported 2.3 MMbd of crude oil and petroleum products during 2010, so our net imports (imports minus exports) equaled 9.4 MMbd.
Petroleum products imported by the United States during 2010 included gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, jet fuel, chemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other products. Still, most petroleum products consumed in the United States were refined here. Net imports of petroleum other than crude oil were 2% of the petroleum consumed in the United States during 2010.
About Half of U.S. Petroleum Imports Come from the Western Hemisphere
Some may be surprised to learn that 49% of U.S. crude oil and petroleum products imports came from the Western Hemisphere (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean including U.S. territories) during 2010. About 18% of our imports of crude oil and petroleum products come from the Persian Gulf countries of Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Our largest sources of net crude oil and petroleum product imports were Canada and Saudi Arabia.
Top Sources of Net Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Imports:
• Canada (25%)
• Saudi Arabia (12%)
• Nigeria (11%)
• Venezuela (10%)
• Mexico (9%)
It is usually impossible to tell whether the petroleum products you use came from domestic or imported sources of oil once they are refined.
Reliance on Petroleum Imports has Declined
U.S. dependence on imported oil has dramatically declined since peaking in 2005. This trend is the result of a variety of factors including a decline in consumption and shifts in supply patterns. The economic downturn after the financial crisis of 2008, improvements in efficiency, changes in consumer behavior and patterns of economic growth, all contributed to the decline in petroleum consumption. At the same time, increased use of domestic biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), and strong gains in domestic production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids expanded domestic supplies and reduced the need for imports.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/energy_in_brief/foreign_oil_dependence.cfm (06/24/2011).

32. What effect does the use of factual data throughout the article have on its overall purpose?

A. The author’s opinion is well-supported.

B. Multiple perspectives are fairly represented.

C. Multiple opinions can be formed by readers.

D. The author’s initial question is thoroughly answered.

33. What is the primary way the author achieves his purpose in the text?

A. by persuasively stating an opinion

B. by providing factual details to explain the topic

C. by using examples to create an emotional impact

D. by employing expert testimony to make opinions appear as fact

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from Childhood: “Mamma”

From Russia
Excerpt from Childhood: “Mamma”
by Leo Tolstoy
Mamma was sitting in the drawing-room and making tea. In one hand she was holding the tea-pot, while with the other one she was drawing water from the urn and letting it drip into the tray. Yet though she appeared to be noticing what she doing, in reality she noted neither this fact nor our entry.
However vivid be one’s recollection of the past, any attempt to recall the features of a beloved being shows them to one’s vision as through a mist of tears—dim and blurred. Those tears are the tears of the imagination. When I try to recall Mamma as she was then, I see, true, her brown eyes, expressive always of love and kindness, the small mole on her neck below where the small hairs grow, her white embroidered collar, and the delicate, fresh hand which so often caressed me, and which I so often kissed; but her general appearance escapes me altogether.
To the left of the sofa stood an English piano, at which my dark-haired sister Lubotshka was sitting and playing with manifest1 effort (for her hands were rosy from a recent washing in cold water) Clementi’s “Etudes.” Then eleven years old, she was dressed in a short cotton frock and white lace-frilled trousers, and could take her octaves only in arpeggio.2 Beside her was sitting Maria Ivanovna, in a cap adorned with pink ribbons and a blue shawl, Her face was red and cross, and it assumed an expression even more severe when Karl Ivanitch entered the room. Looking angrily at him without answering his bow, she went on beating time with her foot and counting, “One, two, three—one, two, three,” more loudly and commandingly than ever.
Karl Ivanitch paid no attention to this rudeness, but went, as usual, with German politeness to kiss Mamma’s hand. She drew herself up, shook her head as though by the movement to chase away sad thoughts from her, and gave Karl her hand, kissing him on his wrinkled temple as he bent his head in salutation.
“I thank you, dear Karl Ivanitch,” she said in German, and then, still using the same language asked him how we (the children) had slept. Karl Ivanitch was deaf in one ear, and the added noise of the piano now prevented him from hearing anything at all. He moved nearer to the sofa, and, leaning one hand upon the table and lifting his cap above his head, said with, a smile which in those days always seemed to me the perfection of politeness, “You, will excuse me, will you not, Natalia Nicolaevna?”
The reason for this was that, to avoid catching cold, Karl never took off his red cap, but invariably asked permission, on entering the drawing-room, to retain it on his head.
“Yes, pray replace it, Karl Ivanitch,” said Mamma, bending towards him and raising her voice. “But I asked you whether the children had slept well?”
Still he did not hear, but, covering his bald head again with the red cap, went on smiling more than ever.
“Stop a moment, Mimi,” said Mamma (now smiling also) to Maria Ivanovna. “It is impossible to hear anything.”
How beautiful Mamma’s face was when she smiled! It made her so infinitely more charming, and everything around her seemed to grow brighter! If in the more painful moments of my life I could have seen that smile before my eyes, I should never have known what grief is. In my opinion, it is in the smile of a face that the essence of what we call beauty lies. If the smile heightens the charm of the face, then the face is a beautiful one. If the smile does not alter the face, then the face is an ordinary one. But if the smile spoils the face, then the face is an ugly one indeed.
Mamma took my head between her hands, bent it gently backwards, looked at me gravely and said, “You have been crying this morning?”
I did not answer. She kissed my eyes, and said again in German, “Why did you cry?”
When talking to us with particular intimacy she always used this language, which she knew to perfection.
“I cried about a dream, Mamma,” I replied, remembering the invented vision, and trembling involuntarily at the recollection.
Karl Ivanitch confirmed my words, but said nothing as to the subject of the dream. Then, after a little conversation on the weather, in which Mimi also took part, Mamma laid some lumps of sugar on the tray for one or two of the more privileged servants, and crossed over to her embroidery frame, which stood near one of the windows.
“Go to Papa now, children,” she said, “and ask him to come to me before he goes to the home farm.”
Then the music, the counting, and the wrathful looks from Mimi began again, and we went off to see Papa. Passing through the room which had been known ever since Grandpapa’s time as “the pantry,” we entered the study.

1manifest: obvious
2could take her octaves only in arpeggio: her hands were too small to reach the two notes (eight keys apart) at the same time, so had to hit first one note and then the other.

Project Gutenberg, 2006. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2142/2142-h/2142-h.htm#2H_4_0002 (02/25/2013).

34. How is the narrator’s point of view affected by the passage of time?

A. His details about the piano lessons are more vivid.

B. His details about his mother’s appearance have become clearer.

C. His details reveal he is emotionally overwhelmed by the memories.

D. His details reveal he struggles to remember his mother’s general appearance.

 

English II EOC Part 11

Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from An Account of Timbuctoo and Housa: “The Plague of Locusts”

Excerpt from An Account of Timbuctoo and Housa:
“The Plague of Locusts”
by El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny
In the autumn of 1792, locusts began to appear in West Barbary. The corn was in ear, and therefore safe, as this devouring insect attacks no hard substance. In the period of heavy rains comprised between the forty longest nights, old style, they disappeared; so that one or two only were seen occasionally: but so soon as the liahli had passed, the small young green locust began to appear, no bigger than a fly. As vegetation increased, these insects increased in size and quantity. But the country did not yet seem to suffer from them. About the end of March, they increased rapidly.
I was at the emperor’s garden, which belongs to the Europeans, and which was given to the merchants of Mogodor by the emperor Seedi Muhamed ben Abdallah, in the kabyl of Idaugourd, in the province of Haha, and the garden flourished with every green herb, and the fruit-trees were all coming forward in the productive beauty of spring. I went there the following day, and not a green leaf was to be seen: an army of locusts had attacked it during the night, and had devoured every shrub, every vegetable, and every green leaf; so that the garden had been converted into an unproductive wilderness. And, notwithstanding the incredible devastation that was thus produced, not one locust was to be seen.
The gardener reported that the king of the locusts had taken his departure eastward early in the morning; the myriads of locusts followed, so that in a quarter of an hour not one was to be seen. The depredations1 of these devouring insects was too soon felt, and a direful scarcity ensued. The poor would go out a locusting, as they termed it: the bushes were covered; they took their garment, and threw it over them, and then collected them in a sack. In half an hour they would collect a bushel. These they would take home, and boil a quarter of an hour; they would then put them into a frying-pan, with pepper, salt, and vinegar, and eat them, without bread or any other food, making a meal of them. They threw away the head, wings, and legs, and ate them as we do prawns. They considered them wholesome food, and preferred them to pigeons. Afterwards, whenever there was any public entertainment given, locusts was a standing dish; and it is remarkable that the dish was always emptied, so generally were they esteemed as palatable2 food.
A few years after the locusts appeared, I performed a journey from Mogodor to Tangier. The face of the country appeared like a newly ploughed field of a brown soil; for it was completely covered with these insects, insomuch that they had devoured even the bark of the trees. They rose up about a yard, as the horses went on, and settled again; in some places they were one upon another, three or four inches deep on the ground; a few were flying in the air, and they flew against the face, as if they were blind, to the no small annoyance of the traveler. It is very remarkable, that on reaching the banks of the river Elkos, which we crossed, there was not, on the north side of that river, to my great astonishment, one locust any where to be seen; but the country was flourishing in all the luxuriance of verdure,3 although the river was not wider than the Thames at Windsor. This extraordinary circumstance was accounted for by the Arabs, who said that not a locust would cross the river, till (sultan jeraad) the king of the locusts should precede and direct the way.

1depredations: destruction
2palatable: delicious
3verdure: greenery

Project Gutenberg, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22631/22631-h/22631-h.htm (02/25/2013).

21. What does the speaker mean by the term “incredible devastation” as used at the end of paragraph 2?

A. The corn crop was ruined.

B. All of the locusts had been killed.

C. All of the plants had been destroyed.

D. The garden’s structures were destroyed.

22. Which explains the effect of the locusts’ destruction to the land?

A. “I went there the following day, and not a green leaf was to be seen.”

B. “And, not withstanding, the incredible devastation that was thus produced, not one locust was to be seen.”

C. “The depredations of these devouring insects was too soon felt, and a direful scarcity ensued.”

D. “The face of the country appeared like a newly ploughed field of a brown soil.”

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Jefferson’s Indian Addresses to the Brothers of the Choctaw Nation

Jefferson’s Indian Addresses
To the Brothers of the Choctaw Nation
We have long heard of your nation as a numerous, peaceable, and friendly people; but this is the first visit we have had from its great men at the seat of our government. I welcome you here; am glad to take you by the hand, and to assure you, for your nation, that we are their friends. Born in the same land, we ought to live as brothers, doing to each other all the good we can, and not listening to wicked men, who may endeavor to make us enemies. By living in peace, we can help and prosper one another; by waging war, we can kill and destroy many on both sides; but those who survive will not be the happier for that.
Then, brothers, let it forever be peace and good neighborhood between us. Our seventeen States compose a great and growing nation. Their children are as the leaves of the trees, which the winds are spreading over the forest. But we are just also. We take from no nation what belongs to it. Our growing numbers make us always willing to buy lands from our red brethren, when they are willing to sell. But be assured we never mean to disturb them in their possessions. On the contrary, the lines established between us by mutual consent, shall be sacredly preserved, and will protect your lands from all encroachments1 by our own people or any others. We will give you a copy of the law, made by our great Council, for punishing our people, who may encroach on your lands, or injure you otherwise. Carry it with you to your homes, and preserve it, as the shield which we spread over you, to protect your land, your property, and persons.
It is at the request which you sent me in September, signed by Puckshanublee and other chiefs, and which you now repeat, that I listen to your proposition to sell us lands. You say you owe a great debt to your merchants, that you have nothing to pay it with but lands, and you pray us to take lands, and pay your debt. The sum you have occasion for, brothers, is a very great one. We have never yet paid as much to any of our red brethren for the purchase of lands. You propose to us some on the Tombigbee, and some on the Mississippi. Those on the Mississippi suit us well. We wish to have establishments on that river, as resting places for our boats, to furnish them provisions, and to receive our people who fall sick on the way to or from New Orleans, which is now ours. In that quarter, therefore, we are willing to purchase as much as you will spare. But as to the manner in which the line shall be run, we are not judges of it here, nor qualified to make any bargain. But we will appoint persons hereafter to treat with you on the spot, who, knowing the country and quality of the lands, will be better able to agree with you on a line which will give us a just equivalent for the sum of money you want paid.
You have spoken, brothers, of the lands which your fathers formerly sold and marked off to the English, and which they ceded to us with the rest of the country they held here; and you say that, though you do not know whether your fathers were paid for them, you have marked the line over again for us, and do not ask repayment. It has always been the custom, brothers, when lands were bought of the red men, to pay for them immediately, and none of us have ever seen an example of such a debt remaining unpaid. It is to satisfy their immediate wants that the red men have usually sold lands; and in such a case, they would not let the debt be unpaid. The presumption2 from custom then is strong; so it is also from the great length of time since your fathers sold these lands. But we have, moreover, been informed by persons now living, and who assisted the English in making the purchase, that the price was paid at the time. Were it otherwise, as it was their contract, it would be their debt, not ours.
I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families. Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting. A little land cultivated, and a little labor, will procure more provisions than the most successful hunt; and a woman will clothe more by spinning and weaving, than a man by hunting. Compared with you, we are but as of yesterday in this land. Yet see how much more we have multiplied by industry, and the exercise of that reason which you possess in common with us. Follow then our example, brethren, and we will aid you with great pleasure.
The clothes and other necessaries which we sent you the last year, were, as you supposed, a present from us. We never meant to ask land or any other payment for them; and the store which we sent on, was at your request also; and to accommodate you with necessaries at a reasonable price, you wished of course to have it on your land; but the land would continue yours, not ours.
As to the removal of the store, the interpreter, and the agent, and any other matters you may wish to speak about, the Secretary at War will enter into explanations with you, and whatever he says, you may consider as said by myself, and what he promises you will be faithfully performed.
I am glad, brothers, you are willing to go and visit some other parts of our country. Carriages shall be ready to convey you, and you shall be taken care of on your journey; and when you shall have returned here and rested yourselves to your own mind, you shall be sent home by land. We had provided for your coming by land, and were sorry for the mistake which carried you to Savannah instead of Augusta, and exposed you to the risks of a voyage by sea. Had any accident happened to you, though we could not help it, it would have been a cause of great mourning to us. But we thank the Great Spirit who took care of you on the ocean, and brought you safe and in good health to the seat of our great Council; and we hope His care will accompany and protect you, on your journey and return home; and that He will preserve and prosper your nation in all its just pursuits.

1encroachments: invasions
2presumptions: beliefs based on evidence

From The Avalon Project, Yale Law School.

23. How does the author use paragraph 5 in this selection to urge the Chocotaw people not to hunt?

A. He claims that few people hunt anymore anyway.

B. He claims that without farmers, society will die away.

C. He claims that raising stock and bread is less harmful to the earth.

D. He claims that farming and raising livestock are more advantageous.

 

English II EOC Part 11

Read the following and answer the questions below:
The First Labor of Hercules

The First Labor of Hercules

1 The first labor that Eurystheus assigned to Hercules was to bring him the skin of the Nemean lion. This monster dwelt on the mountain of Peloponnesus, in the forest between Kleona and Nemea, and could be wounded by no weapons made of man. Some said he was the son of the giant Typhon and the snake Echidna; others that he had dropped down from the Moon to the Earth.

2 Hercules set out on his journey and came to Kleona, where a poor laborer, Molorchus, received him hospitably. He met the latter just as he was about to offer a sacrifice to Jupiter.

3 “Good man,” said Hercules, “let the animal live thirty days longer; then, if I return, offer it to Jupiter, my deliverer, and if I do not return, offer it as a funeral sacrifice to me, the hero who has attained immortality.”

4 So Hercules continued on his way, his quiver of arrows over his shoulder, his bow in one hand, and in the other a club made from the trunk of a wild olive tree which he had passed on Mount Helicon and pulled up by the roots. When he at last entered the Nemean wood, he looked carefully in every direction in order that he might catch sight of the monster lion before the lion should see him. It was mid-day, and nowhere could he discover any trace of the lion or any path that seemed to lead to his lair. He met no man in the field or in the forest: fear held them all shut up in their distant dwellings. The whole afternoon he wandered through the thick undergrowth, determined to test his strength just as soon as he should encounter the lion.

5 At last, toward evening, the monster came through the forest, returning from his trap in a deep fissure of the Earth.

6 He was saturated with blood: head, mane and breast were reeking, and his great tongue was licking his jaws. The hero, who saw him coming long before he was near, took refuge in a thicket and waited until the lion approached; then with his arrow he shot him in the side. But the shot did not pierce his flesh; instead it flew back as if it had struck stone and fell on the mossy earth.

7 Then the animal raised his bloody head; looked around in every direction, and in fierce anger showed his ugly teeth. Raising his head, he exposed his heart, and immediately Hercules let fly another arrow, hoping to pierce him through the lungs. Again the arrow did not enter the flesh but fell at the feet of the monster.

8 Hercules took a third arrow, while the lion, casting his eyes to the side, watched him. His whole neck swelled with anger; he roared, and his back was bent like a bow. He sprang toward his enemy; but Hercules threw the arrow and cast off the lion skin in which he was clothed with the left hand, while with the right he swung his club over the head of the beast and gave him such a blow on the neck that, all ready to spring as the lion was, he fell back, and came to a stand on trembling legs, with shaking head. Before he could take another breath, Hercules was upon him.

9 Throwing down his bow and quiver, that he might be entirely unencumbered, he approached the animal from behind, threw his arm around his neck and strangled him. Then for a long time he sought in vain to strip the fallen animal of his hide. It yielded to no weapon or no stone. At last the idea occurred to him of tearing it with the animal’s own claws, and this method immediately succeeded.

10 Later he prepared for himself a coat of mail out of the lion’s skin, and from the neck, a new helmet; but for the present he was content to don his own costume and weapons, and with the lion’s skin over his arm took his way back to Tirynth.

16. The term imagery is often used in analyzing literature. What detail from this passage provides the best example of imagery?

A. This monster dwelt on the mountain of Peloponnesus, in the forest between Kleona and Nemea, and could be wounded by no weapons made of man.

B. So Hercules continued on his way, his quiver of arrows over his shoulder, his bow in one hand, and in the other a club made from the trunk of a wild olive tree which he had passed on Mount Helicon and pulled up by the roots.

C. At last, toward evening, the monster came through the forest, returning from his trap in a deep fissure of the Earth.

D. He was saturated with blood: head, mane and breast were reeking, and his great tongue was licking his jaws.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from My Reminiscences

Excerpt from My Reminiscences
by Rabindranath Tagore
I know not who paints the pictures on memory’s canvas; but whoever he may be, what he is painting are pictures; by which I mean that he is not there with his brush simply to make a faithful copy of all that is happening. He takes in and leaves out according to his taste. He makes many a big thing small and small thing big. He has no compunction1 in putting into the background that which was to the fore, or bringing to the front that which was behind. In short he is painting pictures, and not writing history.
Thus, over Life’s outward aspect passes the series of events, and within is being painted a set of pictures. The two correspond but are not one.
We do not get the leisure to view thoroughly this studio within us. Portions of it now and then catch our eye, but the greater part remains out of sight in the darkness. Why the ever-busy painter is painting; when he will have done; for what gallery his pictures are destined—who can tell?
Some years ago, on being questioned as to the events of my past life, I had occasion to pry into this picture-chamber. I had thought to be content with selecting some few materials for my Life’s story. I then discovered, as I opened the door, that Life’s memories are not Life’s history, but the original work of an unseen Artist. The variegated2 colors scattered about are not reflections of outside lights, but belong to the painter himself, and come passion-tinged from his heart; thereby unfitting the record on the canvas for use as evidence in a court of law.

But though the attempt to gather precise history from memory’s storehouse may be fruitless, there is a fascination in looking over the pictures, a fascination which cast its spell on me.
The road over which we journey, the wayside shelter in which we pause, are not pictures while yet we travel—they are too necessary, too obvious. When, however, before turning into the evening resthouse, we look back upon the cities, fields, rivers, and hills which we have been through in Life’s morning, then, in the light of the passing day, are they pictures indeed. Thus, when my opportunity came, did I look back, and was engrossed.
Was this interest aroused within me solely by a natural affection for my own past? Some personal feeling, of course, there must have been, but the pictures had also an independent artistic value of their own. There is no event in my reminiscences3 worthy of being preserved for all time. But the quality of the subject is not the only justification for a record. What one has truly felt, if only it can be made sensible to others, is always of importance to one’s fellow men. If pictures which have taken shape in memory can be brought out in words, they are worth a place in literature.
It is as literary material that I offer my memory pictures. To take them as an attempt at autobiography would be a mistake. In such a view these reminiscences would appear useless as well as incomplete.

1compunction: moral issue
2variegated: having a variety
3reminiscences: memories

Project Gutenberg, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22217/22217-h/22217-h.htm (04/03/12).

17. How does the author’s use of compunction in the first paragraph impact the representation of the artist?

A. It represents the lack of conscience the artist uses when creating life’s paintings.

B. It demonstrates the attention to detail the artist uses in rendering his paintings.

C. It acknowledges the importance of precision used by the artist in his paintings.

D. It shows the lack of compassion the artist uses in painting memories.

18. How does the representation of the artist as declining to make “a faithful copy” impact the reader?

A. It shows the artist’s depictions are flawed.

B. It shows the artist’s intentions are ethical.

C. It explains how the artist is internally embattled.

D. It explains how the artist is accurate in his paintings.

________________________________________
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt 1 from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address

Excerpt from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1933
I am certain that my fellow Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with a candor1 and a decision which the present situation of our Nation impels. This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.
In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.
More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.
Yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes2 in the very sight of the supply. Primarily this is because the rulers of the exchange of mankind’s goods have failed, through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous3 money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.
True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They know only the rules of a generation of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision the people perish.
The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit. Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy and moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days will be worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to ourselves and to our fellow men.
Recognition of the falsity of material wealth as the standard of success goes hand in hand with the abandonment of the false belief that public office and high political position are to be valued only by the standards of pride of place and personal profit; and there must be an end to a conduct in banking and in business which too often has given to a sacred trust the likeness of callous and selfish wrongdoing. Small wonder that confidence languishes, for it thrives only on honesty, on honor, on the sacredness of obligations, on faithful protection, on unselfish performance; without them it cannot live.
Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This Nation asks for action, and action now.
1candor: honesty and openness
2languishes: weakens
3unscrupulous: without morals; unethical
Project Gutenberg, 2009. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/4938/4938-h/4938-h.htm#2H_4_0037 (07/29/12).

19. How does Roosevelt’s use of the terms truth, frankly, and honestly in the first paragraph affect the tone?

A. It promotes reassurance by proposing a solution for the nation.

B. It promotes a positive tone by persuading listeners to be honest.

C. It promotes a positive tone by convincing listeners to stop worrying.

D. It promotes reassurance by establishing Roosevelt as a trustworthy person.

20. What is the impact of Roosevelt’s comment “only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment” on the meaning of his message?

A. It emphasizes that American businesses no longer exist.

B. It underscores his point about the difficulties the nation is facing.

C. It shows readers more clearly the problems that farmers are enduring.

D. It makes more plain the contrast between progress and problems in America.

 

English II EOC Part 10

Read the following and answer the questions below:
Prometheus, the Friend of Man

Prometheus, the Friend of Man

1 Many, many centuries ago there lived two brothers, Prometheus or Forethought, and Epimetheus or Afterthought. They were the sons of those Titans who had fought against Jupiter and been sent in chains to the great prison-house of the lower world, but for some reason had escaped punishment.

2 Prometheus, however, did not care for idle life among the gods on Mount Olympus. Instead he preferred to spend his time on the Earth, helping men to find easier and better ways of living. For the children of Earth were not happy as they had been in the golden days when Saturn ruled. Indeed, they were very poor and wretched and cold, without fire, without food, and with no shelter but miserable caves.

3 “With fire they could at least warm their bodies and cook their food,” Prometheus thought, “and later they could make tools and build houses for themselves and enjoy some of the comforts of the gods.”

4 So Prometheus went to Jupiter and asked that he might be permitted to carry fire to the Earth. But Jupiter shook his head in wrath.

5 “Fire, indeed!” he exclaimed. “If men had fire they would soon be as strong and wise as we who dwell on Olympus. Never will I give my consent.”

6 Prometheus made no reply, but he didn’t give up his idea of helping men. “Some other way must be found,” he thought.

7 Then, one day, as he was walking among some reeds he broke off one, and seeing that its hollow stalk was filled with a dry, soft pith, exclaimed:

8 “At last! In this I can carry fire, and the children of men shall have the great gift in spite of Jupiter.”

9 Immediately, taking a long stalk in his hands, he set out for the dwelling of the sun in the far east. He reached there in the early morning, just as Apollo’s chariot was about to begin its journey across the sky. Lighting his reed, he hurried back, carefully guarding the precious spark that was hidden in the hollow stalk.

10 Then he showed men how to build fires for themselves, and it was not long before they began to do all the wonderful things of which Prometheus had dreamed. They learned to cook and to domesticate animals and to till the fields and to mine precious metals and melt them into tools and weapons. And they came out of their dark and gloomy caves and built for themselves beautiful houses of wood and stone. And instead of being sad and unhappy they began to laugh and sing. “Behold, the Age of Gold has come again,” they said.

11 But Jupiter was not so happy. He saw that men were gaining daily greater power, and their very prosperity made him angry.

12 “That young Titan!” he cried out, when he heard what Prometheus had done.

13 Soon after this the god decided that it was time to punish Prometheus. He called Strength and Force and bade them seize the Titan and carry him to the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains. Then he sent Vulcan to bind him with iron chains, making arms and feet fast to the rocks. Vulcan was sorry for Prometheus, but dared not disobey.

14 So the friend of man lay, miserably bound, naked to the winds, while the storms beat about him and an eagle tore at his liver with its cruel talons. But Prometheus did not utter a groan in spite of all his sufferings. Year after year he lay in agony, and yet he would not complain, beg for mercy or repent of what he had done. Men were sorry for him, but could do nothing.

15 Then one day a beautiful white cow passed over the mountain, and stopped to look at Prometheus with sad eyes.

16 “I know you,” Prometheus said. “You are Io, once a fair and happy maiden dwelling in Argos, doomed by Jupiter and his jealous queen to wander over the Earth in this guise. Go southward and then west until you come to the great river Nile. There you shall again become a maiden, fairer than ever before, and shall marry the king of that country. And from your race shall spring the hero who will break my chains and set me free.”

17 Centuries passed and then a great hero, Hercules, came to the Caucasus Mountains. He climbed the rugged peak, slew the fierce eagle, and with mighty blows broke the chains that bound the friend of man.

15. Read this phrase from paragraph 13 of the passage.
. . . making arms and feet fast to the rocks.
What is the meaning of this phrase?

A. Prometheus was forced to move quickly across and between the rocks on the mountain.

B. Prometheus’s limbs were attached securely to the rocks on the mountain with iron chains.

C. Prometheus’s arms and legs were turned into rocks by Vulcan, who was following the orders of Jupiter.

D. Prometheus fasted by refusing to eat any food during the entire time he was living on top of the mountain by the rocks.

 

English II EOC Part 9

Read the following and answer the questions below:
Excerpt from Prime Minister Winston Churchills Address to Both Houses of the United States Congress

Excerpt from Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s Address to Both Houses of the United States Congress, December 26, 1941

Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain in the 1940s and 1950s, gave this address a few weeks after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Japanese attack led to the United States declaring war, siding with Great Britain in World War II.

1 Members of the Senate and members of the House of Representatives, I turn for one moment more from the turmoil and convulsions of the present to the broader basis of the future. Here we are together facing a group of mighty foes who seek our ruin; here we are together defending all that to free men is dear. Twice in a single generation the catastrophe of world war has fallen upon us; twice in our lifetime has the long arm of fate reached across the ocean to bring the United States into the forefront of the battle. If we had kept together after the last War, if we had taken common measures for our safety, this renewal of the curse need never have fallen upon us.

2 Do we not owe it to ourselves, to our children, to mankind tormented, to make sure that these catastrophes shall not engulf us for the third time? It has been proved that pestilences may break out in the Old World, which carry their destructive ravages into the New World, from which, once they are afoot, the New World cannot by any means escape. Duty and prudence alike command first that the germ-centres of hatred and revenge should be constantly and vigilantly surveyed and treated in good time. . . .

3 Five or six years ago it would have been easy, without shedding a drop of blood, for the United States and Great Britain to have insisted on fulfilment . . . of the treaties which Germany signed after the Great War. . . . That chance has passed. It is gone. Prodigious hammer-strokes have been needed to bring us together again. . . . It is not given to us to peer into the mysteries of the future. Still, I avow my hope and faith, sure and inviolate, that in the days to come the British and American peoples will for their own safety and for the good of all walk together side by side in majesty, in justice and in peace.

14. Read the statement from the last paragraph of the passage.
Prodigious hammer-strokes have been needed to bring us together again . . . .
What is Churchill referencing in this statement?

A. the declaration of war by Congress

B. the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan

C. the rise of the Nazi regime in Europe

D. the attack on Great Britain by Germany

 

English II EOC Part 9

Read the following and answer the questions below:
The Heritage

The Heritage
By James Russell Lowell

The rich man’s son inherits lands,
And piles of brick, and stone, and gold,
And he inherits soft white hands,
And tender flesh that fears the cold,
5 Nor dares to wear a garment old;
A heritage, it seems to me,
One scarce would wish to hold in fee.

The rich man’s son inherits cares;
The bank may break, the factory burn,
10 A breath may burst his bubble shares,
And soft white hands could hardly earn
A living that would serve his turn;
A heritage, it seems to me,
One scarce would wish to hold in fee.

15 The rich man’s son inherits wants,
His stomach craves for dainty fare;
With sated heart, he hears the pants
Of toiling hinds with brown arms bare,
And wearies in his easy-chair;
20 A heritage, it seems to me,
One scarce would wish to hold in fee.

What doth the poor man’s son inherit?
Stout muscles and a sinewy heart,
A hardy frame, a hardier spirit;
25 King of two hands, he does his part
In every useful toil and art;
A heritage, it seems to me,
A king might wish to hold in fee.

What doth the poor man’s son inherit?
30 Wishes o’erjoyed with humble things,
A rank, adjudged by toil-won merit,
Content that from employment springs,
A heart that in his labor sings;
A heritage, it seems to me,
35 A king might wish to hold in fee.

What doth the poor man’s son inherit?
A patience learned of being poor,
Courage, if sorrow come, to bear it,
A fellow-feeling that is sure
40 To make the outcast bless his door;
A heritage, it seems to me,
A king might wish to hold in fee.

O rich man’s son! there is a toil
That with all others level stands;
45 Large charity doth never soil,
But only whiten, soft white hands,—
This is the best crop from thy lands;
A heritage it seems to me,
Worth being rich to hold in fee.

50 O poor man’s son! scorn not thy state;
There is worse weariness than thine,
In merely being rich and great;
Toil only gives the soul to shine
And makes rest fragrant and benign;
55 A heritage, it seems to me,
Worth being poor to hold in fee.

Both heirs to some six feet of sod,
Are equal in the earth at last;
Both, children of the same dear God,
60 Prove title to your heirship vast
By record of a well-filled past;
A heritage, it seems to me,
Well worth a life to hold in fee.

13. Which statement best describes how the speaker uses the word inherits to suggest more than just physical gifts?

A. Sons are bound by inheritances, even though they may seem like blessings.

B. Sons pass down the things they inherit, no matter what those inheritances are.

C. Fathers pass down tangible things, but they also pass down the ability to be happy.

D. Fathers pass down tangible things, but they also pass down behaviors and qualities.

 

English II EOC REview Part 8

Read the following and answer the questions below:
A Pink Stocking

A Pink Stocking
by Anton Chekhov

1 A DULL, rainy day…Pavel Petrovitch Somov is pacing up and down his study, grumbling at the weather. The tears of rain on the windows and the darkness of the room make him depressed. He is insufferably bored and has nothing to do…The newspapers have not been brought yet; shooting is out of the question, and it is not nearly dinner-time….

2 Somov is not alone in his study. Madame Somov, a pretty little lady in a light blouse and pink stockings, is sitting at his writing table. She is eagerly scribbling a letter. Every time he passes her as he strides up and down, Ivan Petrovitch looks over her shoulder at what she is writing. He sees big sprawling letters, thin and narrow, with all sorts of tails and flourishes. There are numbers of blots, smears, and finger-marks. Madame Somov does not like ruled paper, and every line runs downhill with horrid wriggles as it reaches the margin….

3 “Lidotchka, who is it you are writing such a lot to?” Somov inquires, seeing that his wife is just beginning to scribble the sixth page.

4 “To sister Varya.”

5 “Hm…it’s a long letter! I’m so bored—let me read it!”

6 “Here, you may read it, but there’s nothing interesting in it.”

7 Somov takes the written pages and, still pacing up and down, begins reading. Lidotchka leans her elbows on the back of her chair and watches the expression of his face…After the first page his face lengthens and an expression of something almost like panic comes into it…At the third page Somov frowns and scratches the back of his head. At the fourth he pauses, looks with a scared face at his wife, and seems to ponder. After thinking a little, he takes up the letter again with a sigh…. His face betrays perplexity and even alarm….

8 “Well, this is beyond anything!” he mutters, as he finishes reading the letter and flings the sheets on the table, “It’s positively incredible!”

9 “What’s the matter?” asks Lidotchka, flustered.

10 “What’s the matter! You’ve covered six pages, wasted a good two hours scribbling, and there’s nothing in it at all! If there were one tiny idea! One reads on and on, and one’s brain is as muddled as though one were deciphering the Chinese wriggles on tea chests! Ough!”

11 “Yes, that’s true,…” says Lidotchka, reddening. “I wrote it carelessly…”

12 “[Odd] sort of carelessness! In a careless letter there is some meaning and style—there is sense in it—while yours…excuse me, but I don’t know what to call it! It’s absolute twaddle! There are words and sentences, but not the slightest sense in them. Your whole letter is exactly like the conversation of two boys: ‘We had pancakes to-day! And we had a soldier come to see us!’ You say the same thing over and over again! You drag it out, repeat yourself. . . . The wretched ideas dance about like devils: there’s no making out where anything begins, where anything ends….How can you write like that?”

13 “If I had been writing carefully,” Lidotchka says in self defence, “then there would not have been mistakes…”

14 “Oh, I’m not talking about mistakes! The awful grammatical howlers! There’s not a line that’s not a personal insult to grammar! No stops nor commas—and the spelling…brrr! ‘Earth’ has an a in it!! And the writing! It’s desperate! I’m not joking, Lido…I’m surprised and appalled at your letter…You mustn’t be angry, darling, but, really, I had no idea you were such a duffer at grammar…And yet you belong to a cultivated, well-educated circle: you are the wife of a University man, and the daughter of a general! Tell me, did you ever go to school?”

15 “What next! I finished at the Von Mebke’s boarding school…”

16 Somov shrugs his shoulders and continues to pace up and down, sighing. Lidotchka, conscious of her ignorance and ashamed of it, sighs too and casts down her eyes…Ten minutes pass in silence.

17 “You know, Lidotchka, it really is awful!” says Somov, suddenly halting in front of her and looking into her face with horror. “You are a mother…do you understand? A mother! How can you teach your children if you know nothing yourself? You have a good brain, but what’s the use of it if you have never mastered the very rudiments of knowledge? There—never mind about knowledge…the children will get that at school, but, you know, you are very shaky on the moral side too! You sometimes use such language that it makes my ears tingle!”

18 Somov shrugs his shoulders again, wraps himself in the folds of his dressing-gown and continues his pacing…Both feel oppressed and miserable…Absorbed in their woes, they do not notice how time is passing and the dinner hour is approaching.

19 Sitting down to dinner, Somov, who is fond of good eating and of eating in peace, begins talking about something else. Lidotchka listens and assents, but suddenly over the soup her eyes fill with tears and she begins whimpering.

20 “It’s all mother’s fault!” she says, wiping away her tears with her dinner napkin. “Everyone advised her to send me to the high school, and from the high school I should have been sure to go on to the University!”

21 “University…high school,” mutters Somov. “That’s running to extremes, my girl! What’s the good of being a blue stocking1! A blue stocking is the very deuce! Neither man nor woman, but just something midway: neither one thing nor another…I hate blue stockings! I would never have married a learned woman…”

22 “There’s no making you out…,” says Lidotchka. “You are angry because I am not learned, and at the same time you hate learned women; you are annoyed because I have no ideas in my letter, and yet you yourself are opposed to my studying…”

23 “You do catch me up at a word, my dear,” yawns Somov…

24 [After] a good dinner, Somov grows more good-humoured, lively, and soft…He watches his pretty wife making the salad with an anxious face and a rush of affection for her, of indulgence and forgiveness comes over him.

25 “It was stupid of me to depress her, poor girl…,” he thought. “Why did I say such a lot of dreadful things? She is silly, that’s true, uncivilised and narrow; but…there are two sides to the question, and audiatur et altera pars 2…Perhaps people are perfectly right when they say that woman’s shallowness rests on her very vocation. Granted that it is her vocation to love her husband, to bear children, and to mix salad, what the devil does she want with learning? No, indeed!”

26 At that point he remembers that learned women are usually tedious, that they are exacting, strict, and unyielding; and, on the other hand, how easy it is to get on with silly Lidotchka, who never pokes her nose into anything, does not understand so much, and never obtrudes her criticism. There is peace and comfort with Lidotchka, and no risk of being interfered with.

27 “Confound them, those clever and learned women! It’s better and easier to live with simple ones,” he thinks, as he takes a plate of chicken from Lidotchka.

28 He recollects that a civilised man sometimes feels a desire to talk and share his thoughts with a clever and well-educated woman. “What of it?” thinks Somov. “If I want to talk of intellectual subjects, I’ll go to Natalya Andreyevna…or to Marya Frantsovna…It’s very simple! But no, I shan’t go. One can discuss intellectual subjects with men,” he finally decides.

——————————————————————————–
1 blue stocking: a woman with strong scholarly or literary interests

2 audiatur et altera pars: the opposite side needs to be heard

12. In the passage, the author describes Lidotchka as “a pretty little lady.” What nuance does the phrase suggest that differs from the phrase “a beautiful woman”?

A. The phrase removes connotation by describing Lidotchka in a more neutral tone.

B. The phrase trivializes Lidotchka by describing her in somewhat childish terms.

C. The phrase establishes Lidotchka as unremarkable compared to her husband.

D. The phrase avoids hyperbole and conveys the idea that Lidotchka is genuinely attractive.

 

English II EOC REview Part 7

Read the following and answer the questions below:
On Womens Rights to Vote

On Women’s Rights to Vote
By Susan B. Anthony

1 Friends and fellow citizens: I stand before you tonight under indictment for the alleged crime of having voted at the last presidential election, without having a lawful right to vote. It shall be my work this evening to prove to you that in thus voting, I not only committed no crime, but, instead, simply exercised my citizen’s rights, guaranteed to me and all United States citizens by the National Constitution, beyond the power of any state to deny.

2 The preamble of the Federal Constitution says:

3 “We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

4 It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union. And we formed it, not to give the blessings of liberty, but to secure them; not to the half of ourselves and the half of our posterity, but to the whole people—women as well as men. And it is a downright mockery to talk to women of their enjoyment of the blessings of liberty while they are denied the use of the only means of securing them provided by this democratic-republican government—the ballot.

5 For any state to make sex a qualification that must ever result in the disfranchisement of one entire half of the people, is to pass a bill of attainder, or, an ex post facto law, and is therefore a violation of the supreme law of the land. By it the blessings of liberty are forever withheld from women and their female posterity.

6 To them this government has no just powers derived from the consent of the governed. To them this government is not a democracy. It is not a republic. It is an odious aristocracy; a hateful oligarchy of sex; the most hateful aristocracy ever established on the face of the globe; an oligarchy of wealth, where the rich govern the poor. An oligarchy of learning, where the educated govern the ignorant, or even an oligarchy of race, where the Saxon rules the African, might be endured; but this oligarchy of sex, which makes father, brothers, husband, sons, the oligarchs over the mother and sisters, the wife and daughters, of every household—which ordains all men sovereigns, all women subjects, carries dissension, discord, and rebellion into every home of the nation.

7 Webster, Worcester, and Bouvier all define a citizen to be a person in the United States, entitled to vote and hold office.

8 The only question left to be settled now is: Are women persons? And I hardly believe any of our opponents will have the hardihood to say they are not. Being persons, then, women are citizens; and no state has a right to make any law, or to enforce any old law, that shall abridge their privileges or immunities. Hence, every discrimination against women in the constitutions and laws of the several states is today null and void, precisely as is every one against Negroes.

10. Read this sentence from paragraph 1 of the passage.
Friends and fellow citizens: I stand before you tonight under indictment for the alleged crime of having voted at the last presidential election, without having a lawful right to vote.

Which of the following words could best replace the word alleged while revealing the author’s opinion?

A. actual

B. possible

C. asserted

D. supposed

11. Read this sentence from the last paragraph of the passage.
And I hardly believe any of our opponents will have the hardihood to say they are not.

Based on the context, which word is closest in meaning to hardihood?

A. caution

B. humility

C. boldness

D. disdainfulness

 

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