NWSA English II

Ms. Strahan's English II Class


January 2014

Nathaniel Hawthorne Notes

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s ancestors included one judge who had prosecuted Quakers in the 1650s.
Hawthorne’s great-grandfather was a magistrate during the 1692 Salem witch trials; he was instrumental in decrying the guilt of a number of victims.
Hawthorne was no churchgoer; however, he was still as keenly aware of problems of sin and guilt as any early Puritan.
He explored complex questions of right and wrong in tales he called “allegories of the heart” – stories that teach a moral principle.

Born in Salem, young Hawthorne spent long periods alone in the remote Maine woods.
Among Hawthorne’s many illustrious classmates at Bowdoin College were the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and future president Franklin Pierce.
After attending college in Maine, Hawthorne returned to Salem, where he secluded himself at home for 12 years to focus on perfecting his skills as a writer.
The author’s last name was originally spelled “Hathorne.” He changed it after graduating from college so that the spelling would more closely match the pronunciation.

In the late 1830s, as Hawthorne was beginning to establish himself as a writer, he met and fell in love with Sophia Peabody, whom he married in 1842.
The couple moved to Concord, where Hawthorne socialized with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.
Hawthorne was a friend with a number of Transcendentalists, including Emerson and Thoreau, though he never fully embraced their views. But that didn’t create any bad blood. Emerson was a pallbearer at Hawthorne’s funeral.

Unable to support his family as a writer, Hawthorne returned to Salem and took a government job that he disliked.
When he lost the job, he returned to writing, completing his masterpiece, The Scarlet Letter, in early 1850.
Although he feared it would be a failure, the book was a sensation.
During this period, he moved his family from Salem to the countryside, where a close neighbor was the writer Herman Melville.

The two writers, who shared a dark view of human life, spent a great deal of time together.
Melville dedicated his famous novel Moby Dick to Hawthorne, his good friend.

While on a tour of the White Mountains, Hawthorne died in his sleep on May 19, 1864, in Plymouth, New Hampshire. Pierce sent a telegram to Elizabeth Peabody to inform Hawthorne’s wife in person; she was too saddened by the news to handle the funeral arrangements herself. Hawthorne’s son Julian, at the time a freshman at Harvard College, learned of his father’s death the next day; coincidentally, it was the same day he was initiated into the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity by being placed blindfolded into a coffin.


The Scarlet Letter Chapters 1 and 2 Vocabulary

2014-01-27 16-07

Chapter 1 Vocab copied is Bell Ringer 1(C).
Chapter 2 Vocab copied is Bell Ringer 2(C).

Mid-Term Review

Unit 3-Narrative Devices

Point of view: Refers t the vantage point from which a story is told.

Narrator: the voice that tells the story

First Person Point of View: The narrator

1) is a main or minor character in the story

2) refers to him-or herself as I or me

3) presents his or her own thoughts, feelings, and interpretations

4) lacks direct access to the thoughts of other characters

5) creates a subjective tone

Third-Person Limited Point of View: The narrator

1)     is not a character in the story but an outside observer

2)     zooms in on the thoughts and feelings of one character—usually the protagonist

3)     creates an objective tone

Third-Person Omniscient: The narrator

1)     is not a character in the story but an outside observer

2)     is “all knowing”; has access to the thoughts and feelings of all the characters

3)     may create a very detached tone

Foreshadowing: the use of hints to build suspense about what will happen next.

Flashback: an account of an event or a conversation that happened before the beginning of the story. (It interrupts the chronological order of events to reveal information that can help readers understand the characters or the current situation.)

Flashback timeline-  2_______3__________1__________4

Pigmies: people of unusually small size

Naïve narrator: when the narrator does not fully understand what he/she sees or experiences (A narrator with limited knowledge)

Tone: the author’s attitude towards the story’s subject/material and/or readers. (Tone may be playful, formal, intimate, angry, serious, ironic, outraged, baffled, tender, serene, depressed, etc.)

Inferences: a conclusion (educated guess) reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning

Allusion: a brief reference to a person, event, place, or phrase. The writer assumes will recognize the reference. For instance, most of us would know the difference between a mechanic’s being as reliable as George Washington or as reliable as Benedict Arnold. Allusions that are commonplace for readers in one era may require footnotes for readers in a later time.

Theme: (1) the abstract concept explored in a literary work; (2) frequently recurring ideas, such as enjoy-life while-you-can; (3) repetition of a meaningful element in a work, such as references to sight, vision, and blindness in Oedipus Rex. Sometimes the theme is also called the motif. Themes in Hamlet include the nature of filial duty and the dilemma of the idealist in a non-ideal situation. A theme in Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” is the difficulty of correlating the ideal and the real.

Is Technology taking over?

“There Will Come Soft Rains” by Ray Bradbury

Chronological order: the sequence in which events occur

Conclusion: a judgment based on evidence in the story and your own prior knowledge

Silhouette: an outline that a[[ears dark against a light background

Paranoia: an irrational fear of danger or misfortune

Manipulate: to move, operate, or handle

Tremulous: trembling, unsteady

Oblivious: paying no attention, completely unaware

Sublime: supreme, splendid

Relays: devices that automatically turn switches in electric circuits on and off

Baal: an idol worshipped by certain ancient peoples of the Middle East

Okapi: an antelope-like hoofed mammal of the African jungle

Personification: is the giving of human qualities to an inanimate object

Imagery: a. The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas. b. The use of expressive or evocative images in art, literature, or music.

What makes someone popular?

“The Doll’s House” by Katherine Mansfield

Carter: delivery person

Palings: fence stakes

Art-serge: a type of woven wool

Guy: British term for an odd-looking person.

Denotation: the literal meaning of a word; there are no emotions, values, or images associated with denotative meaning. Scientific and mathematical language carries few, if any emotional or connotative meanings.



Connotation: the emotions, values, or images associated with a word. The intensity of emotions or the power of the values and images associated with a word varies. Words connected with religion, politics, and sex tend to have the strongest feelings and images associated with them.
      For most people, the word mother calls up very strong positive feelings and associations–loving, self-sacrificing, always there for you, understanding; the denotative meaning, on the other hand, is simply “a female animal who has borne one or more children.” Of course connotative meanings do not necessarily reflect reality; for instance, if someone said, “His mother is not very motherly,” you would immediately understand the difference between motherly (connotation) and mother (denotation).

Paddocks: areas of fenced-in land.

Wattles: acacia trees

Symbol: A person, a place, or an object that represents something beyond itself

Sophomore Grammar Packet Notes Day 1



Make a list of 5 words you often misspell OR confuse:










q  AFFECT:      is most often a verb meaning to influence.

                                  The “D” on my paper did not affect my total letter grade.

                                  His sarcasm did not affect me.


     EFFECT:      is most often a noun meaning the result (of some influencing force)

                                  The effect of the explosion was total destruction of the house.

                                  An air survey showed that the effect of the flood was the creation of a

                                  new lake.

q  A LOT:        is always two words.

                                  Give me a lot of ice cream.

                                  She like him a lot.

q  ACROSS:     is spelled with only oneC” but with two “S’s” (not accross, acros, accros)

                                  She walked across the lawn.

                                  Across the aisle, a girl was crying.

q  THERE:        means a place.  It contains the word here, which is a word that indicates place.

                                  Oh, we’ve been here and there.

                                  (There are only three people present.)


     THEY’RE:     is a contraction of two words, they are.

                                  They’re not here.

                             When do you think they’re coming?


THEIR:        is a special word formed specifically to show possession by a group.  Never use an apostrophe with this word.

                             Where did they leave their hats?

                             Their friends arrived on time.

q  ITS:            is a special word formed specifically to show possession by a thing.  Never use an apostrophe with this word.

                Where is its collar?

                When lecturing on the power of heat, its influence on chocolate cannot be overlooked.


     IT’S:           is a contraction of two words, it is or it has.

                                  It’s nice weather we’re having, isn’t it?

                                  It’s ridiculous to talk about this any longer.

                                  It’s been nice knowing you.

q  AMONG:      is spelled with only one “M”, no “U” and no “E” (not ammong, amoung, amonge).  Among is used to indicate in the midst of more than two things.  (Between is used when only two things are referred to.)

                                  She wandered among the roses.

                                  We split the candy among the four of us.\


    WOMAN:              Woman is the singular form; women is the plural form (as man, men).

WOMEN:              Give that woman a prize!

                             Give those women some prizes!

q  LOOSE:       (adj.) means slack, not tight.  It sounds like noose.

                                  The noose was loose.

                                  Her shoelaces were loose.


      LOSE:        (v.) means to misplace something.

                                  Did you lose your car keys?

                                  Make sure that whatever you are apt to lose will not be a significant loss.

q  ALL RIGHT: is always two words.

                                  All right, I’m coming.

                                  Is he all right?

q   WERE:         (v-past tense of are)  Do not get this word mixed up with the next word.

                                  We were at the movies last night.

                                  Were you with them?


      WHERE:     is a word indicating place (contains here, also a place word).

                                  Where is my umbrella?

                                  Where did Janet say she would meet us?  Here?

q   TO:             is a preposition (a word which indicates relationship).

                                  Let us go to the store.

                                  To what do I owe this honor?


     TWO:          is a word meaning 2.

                                  There were only two cokes left.

                                  Two heads are better than one.


     TOO:           means also or very much.

                                  I want to go to the movies, too.

                                  It was too great a loss.

q   LAID:          is the past tense of lay meaning to put; it is never spelled layed.  It does not                     mean to recline.

                                  The eraser was laid on the sill.

                                  The table was laid carefully.

                                  not: The dog laid down.  but:  The dog lay down.

q   WHICH:      indicates a question of choice.  Do not confuse this with witch—a Halloween                     character of supernatural powers.

                                  Which one do you want?

                                  I don’t know which to choose.

q   WEATHER:  means climatic condition.

                                  Weather at sea is often rough.

                                  Nice weather we’re having!


     WHETHER:  indicates choice or condition.

                                  I wonder whether he will like her.

                                  Does he know whether or not she will come?

q   YOUR:         is a special word formed specifically to show possession by one (or more) being                      addressed. Never use an apostrophe with this word.

                                  Where is your coat?

                                  Your guns are at the sheriff’s office.


     YOU’RE:      is a contraction of two words you are.

                                  You’re gorgeous!

                                  I hear you’re going, too.

q   WHO’S:       is a contraction of two words who is or who has.

                                  Who’s going with us?

                                  I want to know who’s lost the race.


      WHOSE:    is a special word formed specifically to show possession.  Never use an   

apostrophe with this word.

                                  Whose coat is this?

                                  I don’t know whose it is.


q   PASSED:     (in general, consult a dictionary for rare uses of these words)  (v. to go by,   
                   around, or through; to qualify).

                                  I passed the exam last week.

                                  We passed a freight train on our way home.


      PAST:         of a former time, gone by, ended (prep./n.)

                                  I am always fascinated by the past.

                                  His worries were past.

                                  We walked past the bookstore.

q   THAN:         is a preposition indicating a comparison.

                                  I am taller than she is.

                                  One is not better than another.


      THEN:        indicates a time.

                                  Then the big rains fell.

                                  Everything is all right, then?

q   THROUGH:  is a preposition indicating a manner of passing (near by).

                                  He went thought the door.

                                  Through hard work, he passed.


      THREW:     is the past tense of the verb to throw.

                                  The pitcher threw the baseball.

COURSE:     is a path.

                                  They were out on the golf course.

                                  What courses will you take in school?


      COARSE:    means rough.

                                  A coarse voice rasped throughout the building.

                                  The coarse material scratched.

q   ACCEPT:      means to receive.

                                  She accepted the invitation.

                                  I was unwilling to accept.

      EXCEPT:     means to leave out or besides.

                                  Everyone except Mary came to the party.

                                  Except for the final exam, all grades were in.

q   HERS:          is a special word formed specifically to show possession.  Do not form in any way                     with an apostrophe (not hers’ or her’s).

                                  She believed all good things were hers.

q   TRULY:        is not spelled with an E (not truely).

q   WRITING:  is not spelled with two “t’s” (not writting).

q   HOPING:     is not spelled with two p’s (not hopping—that is the movement of rabbits).





I like your trousers. __ ____ very fashionable.


I’ve invited David and Gill and two of __ ____ friends.


Please put that over ___ ___ .


I like them. _ _____ very nice.


I’m fed up with ___ ___ moaning.


I don’t like the way ___ __ always late for meetings.


__ ___ are two points I’d like to make.


I like them but I don’t like ____ father.


___ ___ coming later. Please start without them.


__ ___ is someone to see you.


__ ____ not very beautiful, are they?


_ ____ isn’t any left.


__ ____ boss won’t let them come.


___ ___ are several reasons I want to see you.


_____ not English, are they?


___ ___ is Tom, standing by the coffee machine.


I don’t know what ___ ___ names are but I’ve met them before.


I don’t know ___ __ nationalities but I know they are not English.


Do not hesitate to contact me if __ ____ is anything I can do.


__ ____ from Italy, I think.





1. Many students read ___ _ quickly and __ ___ carelessly. 
2. I was ___ __ scared ___ __ say a word to her! 

3. I am going _____ the store now. 
4. They are building _____ new houses on our block. 
5. May I go _____? 
6. Do you think it is _____ late _____ do that now? 
7. I have _____ new shirts that I can’t wait _____ wear. 
8. My dental appointment lasted _____ hours and that was _____ long! 
9. This room is _____ cold _____ stay in very much longer. 
10. After I played racquetball for _____ hours, I was _____ tired ____ walk home.
11. It is not good _____ put _____ much salt on your food. 
12. My next dental appointment is for tomorrow at _____ o’clock. 
13. I am not _____ excited about going _____ the dentist again. 
14. My brother flew _____ Alabama earlier this week. 
15. We have planted _____ rose bushes in pots on the patio.




# 1-5:  Read the following paragraph and choose the best option for each one.


New Bundle of JOY












My friend was so excited one morning that she called me at 6:00am to tell me about her new dog.  She and her fiancé live in a one bedroom condo in Charlotte and felt that something was missing from ________(a. there   b. their   c. they’re) home, so ___(a. there   b. their   c.they’re) new bundle is called Olivia.  My friend was worried that with _____(a. its   b.  it’s) boisterous nature, the dog might try to open the cabinets and get into things.  I advised her by saying, “_____(a. Its   b.  It’s) not something that you have to worry about today.”  My friend and her fiancé rushed home that day to find Olivia peacefully snuggled under _______( a. there   b. their   c. they’re) bed covers.

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